Skip to main content

The association of the spiritual health and psychological well-being of teachers with their organizational commitment

Abstract

Background

In line with the significance of organizational commitment, the question arises "Do spiritual health and psychological well-being optimize teachers' organizational commitment?" The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between spiritual health, psychological well-being and the organizational commitment of high school teachers.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study in which, 346 teachers in Tehran high schools participated through multi-stage sampling. The data were collected using Ryff Psychological Well-being Questionnaire (1989), Spiritual Health Questionnaire in Iranian Society (2014) and Organizational Commitment scale of Allen and Meyer (1990), and their relationships were assessed.

Results

Psychological well-being and spiritual health had positive and significant relationship with teachers' organizational commitment. Furthermore, approximately 50% of variations in organizational commitment subscales could be explained by the variables of spiritual health and psychological well-being.

Conclusion

Psychological well-being and spiritual health can predict organizational commitment as the dependent variable among high school teachers.

Peer Review reports

Background

Organizational commitment is a main issue in the field of human resource management [1]. Employee commitment may lead to important positive outcomes at individual and organizational levels [2]. The dominant model of commitment developed by Allen and Meyer, comprising three affective, normative, and continuance dimensions, but more recent models encompass two more dimensions including relevant organizational behavior and attitude to work [3]. Commitment is believed to possess both intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. Though external motives are important and major parts of human resource management in an organization, the internal conviction is more stable and tenable, because it rooted in one’s own beliefs [4]. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the factors affecting organizational commitment and develop it through effective educational interventions. Schools and general education system can provide the appropriate context for the growth of society in all its dimensions. Furthermore, teachers as the main actors in training and formation of different traits of human resources are the key elements in the qualitative development of education. It seems that every reform or reconstruction in the education system is condemned to failure without active contribution of teachers and their commitment which provides the resource for organizational health of the schools and the qualification of education [5]. A variety of factors have been shown to affect commitment including job satisfaction [1, 2, 6], human relations and well-being [7], burnout [8], work outcomes [9], organizational health [5], and employee’s physical health and stress reduction [10]. Organizationally committed employees are more satisfied at work, and less burned out in the organization [11, 12].

On the other hand, there are evidences denoting a relationship between spirituality and commitment along with different consequences including increased creativity, honesty, trust, personal growth and development [13]. In a more comprehensive definition, spirituality is associated with values that could be identified in the lives of everybody with regard to oneself, others, surroundings, and God [14]. It seems that integrity of person’s individual, mental, and spiritual life brings about connectedness between him and his job followed by satisfaction [15]. Spirituality has the capacity to make a balance between one's basic beliefs and organizational values and integrate them [16]. It brings a sense of unity, continuation, and understanding outstanding values in workplace [17]. Workplace spirituality promotes organizational commitment and hence organizational citizenship behavior [18]. Spirituality within the context of workplace encompasses concepts like meaningful work, interconnectedness, transcendence, and alignment of values [19]. Other evidence concerning the influence of spirituality on the attitudes and behavior of employees at the workplace, indicates that in cases of lower job satisfaction, it is compensated by spiritual factors [20].

Psychological well-being denotes a positive functioning and flourishing in life [21]. Psychological well-being is characterized by autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance [22]. Moreover, it is associated with consequences like positive affect, life satisfaction, sense of coherence, and optimism [23]. Well-functioning people view their lives worthwhile; they are engaged in work, having control on their work environment, feeling competent to do their work and experiencing positive relationships with others [21]. Psychological well-being entails a person’s potential for development and growth and includes feelings of personal expressiveness and accomplishment [21]. In this way, the study of the role of psychological well-being on organizational achievements seems worthwhile.

Considerable research addresses spiritual health and psychological well-being. Both the constructs are expected to be associated with commitment, especially in the affective domain [24]. Educational contexts on the other hand, are mainly influenced by teachers' commitment. Therefore, the investigation of the relationship between the variables under study in this research, can clarify some paths of promoting commitment and consequently organizational performance and accomplishment. We hypothesized that spiritual health and psychological well-being are predictive of increased organizational commitment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation of spiritual health, psychological well-being and organizational commitment.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study designed to investigate the relationships of spiritual health and psychological well-being with organizational commitment. We assessed the predictive value of the multiple dimensions of the mentioned concepts.

Sample

A total of 384 high school teachers in Tehran, Iran, received the questionnaire, and 346 returned (response rate was 90%). The sample was chosen through multistage random sampling. Out of 346 participants, 210 (61%) were female and 245 (71%) were married. Two hundred and one (58%) had a bachelor' degree, the rest (42%) possessing a master's degree. All the participants had Iranian nationality and Muslim faith.

Data collection tools

Spiritual health measurement instrument in Iranian society

"Spiritual health measurement instrument in Iranian society" is a 48-item questionnaire designed and validated by Amiri et al. The instrument assesses spiritual health concentrating on one's relationships with God, oneself, and the environment in terms of insight, tendency and behavior [25]. The internal consistency for all scales and subscales were measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient as satisfactory with 0.70 or more.

Psychological well-being questionnaire

Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale was developed according to Carol Ryff's definition of wellbeing consisting of six components: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. The Short version questionnaire designed in 1989 and revised in 2002 [21, 26] contains a total of 18 questions and 6 scales. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was shown by Van Dierendonck with the Cronbach's alpha of 0.77–0.90 [27]. The validity of its Persian translation has been reported with the internal consistency of the six subscales including self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth as 0.51, 0.75, 0.72, 0.76, 0.52 and 0.73 and the total Cronbach's alpha as 0.71 [28].

Allen & Meyer organizational commitment questionnaire

Allen & Meyer organizational commitment questionnaire is a 24 item questionnaire prepared in 1990 [29] with three dimensions of affective, normative, and continuance commitment. The reliability coefficients of this questionnaire for affective, normative and continuous dimensions were evaluated 0.85, 0.79 and 0.83 respectively [30]. The validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire was calculated and Cronbach's alpha was reported as 0.81 [31].

Data were analyzed using SPSS-20 for Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis at a significant level of P < 0.05.

Results

The data analysis showed the mean scores as 91.7 in organizational commitment, 89.5 in spiritual health, and 79.1 in psychological well-being. The details are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 The mean and standard deviation of commitment, spiritual health and psychological well-being and their dimensions (subscales)

Scores of organizational commitment, spiritual health and psychological well-being in relation with the demographic characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Scores of organizational commitment, spiritual health and psychological well-being based on demographic characteristics of the participants

The highest commitment scores were observed in 40–50 age range. Spiritual health was highest in < 30 years, while the top scores in psychological well-being was obtained by over 50 years. Mean scores of commitment, spiritual health and psychological well-being were higher in individuals with lower degree (Bachelor). The Mean scores of psychological well-being surpassed in single participants, while commitment and spiritual well-being were higher in the married. Results of the regression analysis indicated that there was a significant effect between spiritual health, psychological well-being, and organizational commitment, (F = 169.375, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.497). the results implied that approximately 50% of the subscales of the response variable (organizational commitment) are predictable by the independent variables (psychological well-being and spiritual health).

The relationship between commitment and spiritual health was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficient, while the relationship between commitment and psychological well-being dimensions was calculated through Spearman correlation coefficient. The results as presented in Table 3 indicate a positive correlation between commitments, especially continuance commitment, with spiritual health. Continuance commitment showed positive and significant correlation with the dimensions of attitude and tendency subscales of spiritual health questionnaire as well (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive and significant correlation between affective commitment and behavior subscales of spiritual health questionnaire (P < 0.05).

Table 3 Relationship between dimensions of commitment with spiritual health and psychological well-being

On the other hand, all dimensions of commitment showed positive and significant correlation with psychological well-being (P < 0.0001). The subscales of commitment and psychological well-being were significantly correlated between normative commitment, and positive relationship with others (P < 0.0001), between continuance commitment and autonomy (P < 0.05), between affective commitment and environmental mastery (P < 0.0001), between continuance commitment and purpose in life (P < 0.0001), and finally between continuance commitment and personal growth (P < 0.05).

Regression coefficients and constant values are presented in Table 4. As shown, psychological well-being and spiritual health have a significant relationship with commitment and can predict it as the dependent variable.

Table 4 Regression coefficients between spiritual health and psychological well-being with commitment

Discussion

The present study was conducted in order to illustrate the relationship that spiritual health and psychological well-being were supposed to have with the organizational commitment among high school teachers. The results showed positive and significant relationship between the above-mentioned variables as a whole and nearly half the commitment subscales were explained by spiritual health and psychological well-being. In this way, the hypothesis of the study was confirmed in general. These are in line with the findings of some previous studies. Studies have indicated positive and significant relationship between organizational commitment and spirituality in workplace and their consequent ethical behavior among the staff [32,33,34]. It seems that the more spirituality among teachers would cause a growth in organizational commitment and professional ethics and vice versa [34]. Another study showed that besides the relationship between the dimensions of spirituality in the workplace and organizational commitment, they are related with job satisfaction [35]. Many other studies still introduce more detailed factors affecting commitment. Employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training are among the influencing factors [36].

To explain the significance of organizational commitment, it is best to consider the evidences emphasizing its role in the improvement of organizational performance [37, 38]. Obviously, the increased performance is the aim of many management plans and activities. Any achievement in organizations primarily, depends on the dedication of human resources and their commitments to the goals of the organization. In the field of education, goals like training creative and innovative students [39], and developing the required competencies for a good life in them cannot be achieved without commitment of the teachers to their job and the school as their organization.

Evidences indicating the relationship between spirituality and organizational commitment are noteworthy as well [32,33,34,35]. It seems that the two concepts have common components and shared values particularly in their inner nature [4]. The psychological well-being has interrelations with spiritual health [40] and thus the concepts of spiritual health, psychological well-being and organizational commitment seem interrelated and strengthening each other.

Conclusion

Educational organizations have to care about teachers’ psychological well-being and spiritual health, so their commitment to work can make a better educational environment. The results suggest interventions or facilities for the improvement of the spiritual health and psychological well-being of the teachers. Educational leaders can consider the findings in their plans and programs because of its desirable consequences.

Availability of data and materials

The data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author [SY], upon reasonable request.

References

  1. Rauf M, Akhtar MS, Asim SM. Relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of teachers serving as subject specialists at higher secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Dialogue (Pakistan). 2013;8(2):145.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Veličković VM, Višnjić A, Jović S, Radulović O, Šargić Č, Mihajlović J, et al. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among nurses in Serbia: a factor analysis. Nurs Outlook. 2014;62(6):415–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Krajcsák Z, Jónás T. Commitment profiles in special groups of employees in Hungary: the role of deliberate commitment. Acta Oecon. 2014;64(3):357–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Krajcsák Z. The interdependence between the extended organizational commitment model and the self-determination theory. J Adv Manag Res. 2019;17:1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Tsui KT, Cheng YC. School organizational health and teacher commitment: a contingency study with multi-level analysis. Educ Res Eval. 1999;5(3):249–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chang C-S. Moderating effects of nurses’ organizational support on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. West J Nurs Res. 2015;37(6):724–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Sawada T. The relationships among occupational and organizational commitment, human relations in the workplace, and well-being in nurses. Shinrigaku kenkyu Jpn J Psychol. 2013;84(5):468–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Han SS, Han JW, An YS, Lim SH. Effects of role stress on nurses’ turnover intentions: the mediating effects of organizational commitment and burnout. Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2015;12(4):287–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Luchak AA, Gellatly IR. A comparison of linear and nonlinear relations between organizational commitment and work outcomes. J Appl Psychol. 2007;92(3):786.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Jain AK, Giga SI, Cooper CL. Stress, health and well-being: the mediating role of employee and organizational commitment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(10):4907–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gemlik N, Sisman FA, Sigri U. The relationship between burnout and organizational commitment among health sector staff in Turkey. J Glob Strateg Manag. 2010;8(7):56.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Akbari M, Hossaini SM. The relationship of spiritual health with quality of life, mental health, and burnout: the mediating role of emotional regulation. Iran J Psychiatry. 2018;13(1):22.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Kinjerski VM, Skrypnek BJ. Defining spirit at work: Finding common ground. J Organ Change Manag. 2004;17:26–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Elkins DN, Hedstrom LJ, Hughes LL, Leaf JA, Saunders C. Toward a humanistic-phenomenological spirituality: definition, description, and measurement. J Humanist Psychol. 1988;28(4):5–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Wissing MP. Towards flourishing: contextualising positive psychology. Van Schaik Publishers; 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bradley J, Kauanui SK. Comparing spirituality on three southern California college campuses. J Organ Change Manag. 2003;16:448–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gibbons P. Spirituality at work: definitions, measures, assumptions, and validity claims. Work and spirit: a reader of new spiritual paradigms for organizations. Scranton: University of Scranton Press; 2000. p. 111–31.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Pasikhani MSH, Kuchesfahani TS. The impact of workplace spirituality on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with the mediating role of organizational commitment in nurses of Rasht Hospitals, Iran. J Adv Pharm Educ Res. 2018;8(S2):31.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Pirkola H, Rantakokko P, Suhonen M. Workplace spirituality in health care: an integrated review of the literature. J Nurs Manag. 2016;24(7):859–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Neubert MJ, Halbesleben K. Called to commitment: an examination of relationships between spiritual calling, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. J Bus Ethics. 2015;132(4):859–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Keyes CL, Shmotkin D, Ryff CD. Optimizing well-being: the empirical encounter of two traditions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002;82(6):1007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ryff CD, Keyes CLM. The structure of psychological well-being revisited. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995;69(4):719.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Millstein RA, von Hippel C, Howe CJ, Tomasso LP, Wagner GR, et al. Psychological well-being as part of the public health debate? Insight into dimensions, interventions, and policy. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Meyer JP, Maltin ER. Employee commitment and well-being: a critical review, theoretical framework and research agenda. J Vocat Behav. 2010;77(2):323–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Amiri P, Abbasi M, Gharibzadeh S, Zarghani NH, Azizi F. Designation and psychometric assessment of a comprehensive spiritual health questionnaire for Iranian populations. Med Ethics J. 2015;9(30):25–56.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57(6):1069.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Van Dierendonck D. The construct validity of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being and its extension with spiritual well-being. Personal Individ Differ. 2004;36(3):629–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Khanjani M, Shahidi S, Fathabadi J, Mazaheri M, Shokri O. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Ryff’s scale of Psychological well-being, short form (18-item) among male and female students. Idea Behav Clin Behav. 2014;9(32):27–36.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Allen NJ, Meyer JP. Organizational commitment: evidence of career stage effects? J Bus Res. 1993;26(1):49–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topolnytsky L. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. J Vocat Behav. 2002;61(1):20–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Elmi M, Barzi AM. Examining the relationship between management style of managers and organizational commitment of teachers in boukan city. 2009.

  32. Abdollahi B, Karimian H, Namdari PM. Relationship between organizational commitment and spirituality in the workplace with ethical behavior of employees. Ethics Sci Technol. 2015;9(4):1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Rafiei A, Farzan F, Hosseini SE, Mohammadi NM. The Relationship between organizational spirituality and organizational commitment of Qazvin sports managers. J Sport Manag Motor Behav. 2012;11(21):166–257.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kalantari MR, Khalili RN. The relationship between spirituality in workplace, organizational commitment and professional ethics among girl’s senior high school teachers. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.62356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Mirzaei Tavakoli M, Shariatmadari M. The effect of spirituality at workplace and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of the staff of the supreme leader’s representative office at universities. 2015.

  36. Hanaysha J. Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on organizational commitment. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2016;229(298–306):298–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Azam A. Combined leadership development practices: Improving organizational performance through organizational commitment. International Journal of Business Reflections. 2020;1(1):111–41.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hendri N. The impact of organizational commitment on job performance. Int J Econ Bus Adm (IJEBA). 2019;2:189–206.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Seechaliao T. Instructional strategies to support creativity and innovation in education. J Educ Learn. 2017;6(4):201–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Leung CH, Pong HK. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between the spiritual wellbeing and psychological health among University Students. PLoS ONE. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249702.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate all the participants for their collaboration.

Authors' information

Morteza Heidari is a Ph.D. graduate in higher education administration and an assistant professor at Qom University of medical sciences. He is an assistant professor in. More detail is available at https://isid.research.ac.ir/Morteza_Heidari2. Maryam Ardebili is an MD- Ph.D. in medicine and future study. She is an assistant professor in the Spiritual Health Research Center (SHRC), Qom University of Medical Sciences. More detail is available at https://isid.research.ac.ir/Maryam_Ardabili. Sadegh Yoosefee is a Ph.D. graduate in neuroscience and an associate professor at Qom University of medical sciences. He is the director of the Spiritual Health Research Center (SHRC). More detail is available at https://isid.research.ac.ir/Sadegh_Yoosefee. Mohammad Ali HoseinPour is a Master's degree graduate in psychology from Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch.

Funding

The study was conducted as an M.Sc. thesis with no funding, and the authors have not received any financial support for this study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MH has mainly contributed in the data analysis and preparation of the manuscript. MAH has carried out the process of data gathering and contributed in all other parts of the study. MA has been most dominant in the literature review and conception of the research. SY has been influential in the study design and data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sadegh Yoosefee.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The proposal has been approved by the council as an M.Sc. thesis in Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch on 2 March 2017 and the ethical approval was done in the same council (reference number: 9521). To assure the ethical considerations are observed, the study was performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. For the convenience of the participants and the confidentiality of the data, every participant was met in person at the time and place of the participant’s convenience. Moreover, their informed consent was taken to meet the ethical consideration.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Informed consent

After providing complete explanation about the research aims and process, the participants were assured of the unanimity and secrecy of the data. Informed consent was obtained from the participants in written form to meet the ethical considerations of the study.

Competing interests

The authors declare that there is no competing interests with respect to this research.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Heidari, M., HoseinPour, M.A., Ardebili, M. et al. The association of the spiritual health and psychological well-being of teachers with their organizational commitment. BMC Psychol 10, 55 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-022-00768-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-022-00768-x

Keywords

  • Spiritual health
  • Psychological well-being
  • Organizational commitment
  • Teacher