World Health Organization. Measuring Health and Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) (editors: TB Üstün, N Kostanjsek, S Chatterji, J Rehm) 2010; WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland; 2010.
World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2000: Health systems: Improving performance. Geneva: WHO; 2000.
Federici S, Bracalenti M, Meloni F, Luciano JV. World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0: An international systematic review. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;39(23):2347–80.
Marom BS, Carel RS, Sharabi M, Ratzon NZ. Cross-cultural adaptation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for Hebrew-speaking subjects with and without hand injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;39(12):1155–61.
Igwesi-Chidobe CN, Kitchen S, Sorinola IO, Godfrey EL. World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0): development and validation of the Nigerian Igbo version in patients with chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2020;21(1):755.
World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
World Health Organization. WHO psychiatric disability assessment schedule. Geneva: WHO; 1988.
Üstün TB,Chatterji S, Kostanjsek N, Rehm J, Kennedy C, Jordan JE, et al; in collaboration with WHO/NIH Joint Project. Developing the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Bull World Health Organ 2010; 88:815–23. doi:https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.09.067231.
Andrews G, Kemp A, Sunderland M, Von Korff M, Ustun TB. Normative data for the 12 item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8343–e8343.
Axelsson E, Lindsäter E, Ljótsson B, Andersson E, Hedman-Lagerlöf E. The 12-item Self-Report World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 Administered Via the Internet to Individuals With Anxiety and Stress Disorders: A Psychometric Investigation Based on Data From Two Clinical Trials. JMIR Ment Health. 2017;4(4):e58. https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.7497.
Cheung MK, Hung AT, Poon PK, Fong DY, Li LS, Chow ES, et al. Validation of the World Health Organization Assessment Schedule II Chinese Traditional Version (WHODAS II CT) in persons with disabilities and chronic illnesses for Chinese population. Disabil Rehabil. 2015;37(20):1902–7.
Rehm J, Ustun TB, Saxena S, Nelson CB, Chatterji S. On the development and psychometric testing of the WHO screening instrument to assess disablement in the general population. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 1999;8:110–22.
Sousa RM, Dewey ME, Acosta D, Jotheeswaran AT, Castro-Costa E, Ferri CP, et al. Measuring disability across cultures–the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II in older people from seven low- and middle-income countries. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2010;19(1):1–17.
Navarro-Mateu F, Alonso J, Lim CCW, Saha S, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, et al; WHO World Mental Health Survey Collaborators. The association between psychotic experiences and disability: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2017 Jul;136(1):74–84. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12749. Epub 2017 May 25. PMID: 28542726; PMCID: PMC5664954.
Scott KM, McGee MA, Wells JE, Oakley Browne MA. Disability in Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006;40(10):889–95.
Buist-Bouwman MA, Ormel J, De Graaf R, Vilagut G, Alonso J, Van Sonderen E, et al; ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000 Investigators. Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule used in the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2008;17(4):185–97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.261. PMID: 18792080; PMCID: PMC6878510.
Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. Disability and quality of life impact of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2004;420:38–46.
Gallagher P, Mulvany F. Levels of ability and functioning: using the WHODAS II in an Irish context. Disabil Rehabil. 2004;26(9):506–17.
Norton J, de Roquefeuil G, Benjamins A, Boulenger JP, Mann A. Psychiatric morbidity, disability and service use amongst primary care attenders in France. Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19(3):164–7.
Gomez-Olive FX, Schröders J, Aboderin I, Byass P, Chatterji S, Davies JI, et al. Variations in disability and quality of life with age and sex between eight lower income and middle-income countries: data from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE collaboration. BMJ Glob Health. 2017;2(4):e000508. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000508.
Reis A, Santos M, Furtado I, Cruz C, Sa-Couto P, Queirós A, et al. Disability and its clinical correlates in pulmonary hypertension measured through the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0: a prospective, observational study. J Bras Pneumol 2019 30;45(4):e20170355. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-3713/e20170355. PMID: 31166372; PMCID: PMC6733722.
Stewart Williams J, Kowal P, Hestekin H, O'Driscoll T, Peltzer K, Yawson A, et al; SAGE collaborators. Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-incomecountries: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). BMC Med. 2015;13:147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0390-8. PMID: 26099794; PMCID: PMC4495610.
Stewart Williams J, Ng N, Peltzer K, Yawson A, Biritwum R, Maximova T, et al. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE). PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0127880. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127880. PMID: 26042785; PMCID: PMC4456393.
Carlozzi NE, Kratz AL, Downing NR, Goodnight S, Miner JA, Migliore N, et al. Validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). Qual Life Res. 2015;24(8):1963–71. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-0930-x. Epub 2015 Jan 31. PMID: 25636661; PMCID: PMC4497948.
Joshi SK. Disability in Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2004;2(1):3–4.
Subedi S, Shyangwa PM. Disability in Mental illness : A Neglected issue. J Psychiatrists’ Association of Nepal. 2018;7(1):1–4.
Bimali I, Adhikari SP, Baidya S, Shakya NR. Impairment and Functional Status of People with Disabilities Following Nepal Earthquake 2015. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2018;16(64):285–9.
Tol WA, Komproe IH, Thapa SB, Jordans MJ, Sharma B, De Jong JT. Disability associated with psychiatric symptoms among torture survivors in rural Nepal. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(6):463–9.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. https://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/bluebook.pdf.
Risal A, Manandhar K, Steiner TJ, Holen A, Koju R, Linde M. Estimating prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical issues of methodology. J Headache Pain. 2014;15(1):51.
Joshi SK, Acharya K. Modification of Kuppuswamy’s Socioeconomic Status Scale in the Context of Nepal, 2019. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2019;17(65):1–2.
Kuppuswamy B. Manual of socio-economic status scale (urban). Manasyan: Delhi; 1981.
da Rocha NS, Power MJ, Bushnell DM, Fleck MP. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF. Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. 2012;15(3):449–57.
Skevington SM, Lotfy M, O’Connell KA, Group W. The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Quality Life Res. 2004;13(2):299–310.
Power M. Development of a common instrument for quality of life. In: Nosikov A, Gudex C, editors. Developing common instruments for health surveys. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 2003. p. 145–63.
Risal A. Major Disorders of the Brain in Nepal: Prevalence, Associations, Interactions and Public-Health Implications. Dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)Trondhein, Norway; 2017.
Risal A, Manandhar S, Manandhar K, Manandhar N, Kunwar D, Holen A. Quality of life and its predictors among aging people in urban and rural Nepal. Qual Life Res. 2020;29(12):3201–12.
Peters M. Translation Protocols. Journal of Hedache and Pain. 2007; 8:S40–S42. https://ehf-org.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/JHP-suppl-S1-S47_by-Paolo.pdf.
https://www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/. Accessed 18 Dec 2019.
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 2001.
Ledesma RD, Valero-Mora P, Macbeth G. The Scree Test and the Number of Factors: a Dynamic Graphics Approach. Span J Psychol. 2015;18:E11.
O’Connor BP. SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2000;32:396–402.
Nunally J, Bernstein I. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.
Wood ND, Akloubou Gnonhosou DC, Bowling J. Combining parallel and exploratory factor analysis in identifying relationship scales in secondary data. Marriage Fam Rev. 2015;51(5):385–95.
Chiu TY, Yen CF, Chou CH, Lin JD, Hwang AW, Liao HF, et al. Development of traditional Chinese version of World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 36–item (WHODAS 2.0) in Taiwan: validity and reliability analyses. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(11):2812–20.
Risal A, Manandhar K, Linde M, Koju R, Steiner TJ, Holen A. Reliability and validity of a Nepali-language version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2015;13(50):115–24.
Risal A, Giri E, Shrestha O, Manandhar S, Kunwar D, Amatya R, et al. Nepali version of geriatric depression scale-15 -a reliability and validation study. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2019;17(45):506–11.