Thompson RA. Emotion dysregulation: a theme in search of definition. Dev Psychopathol. 2019;31:805–15.
Cole PM, Martin SE, Dennis TA. Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Dev. 2004;75:317–33.
Compas BE, et al. Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychol Bull. 2017;143:939–91.
Schlumpf YR, Nijenhuis ERS, Klein C, Jäncke L, Bachmann S. Functional reorganization of neural networks involved in emotion regulation following trauma therapy for complex trauma disorders. NeuroImage Clin. 2019;23:101807.
Kitzmann KM. Learning about emotion: cultural and family contexts of emotion socialization. Glob Stud Child. 2012;2:82–4.
Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Spinrad TL. Parental socialization of emotion. Psychol Inq. 1998;9:241–73.
Tudge JR, Winterhoff PA. Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura: perspectives on the relations between the social world and cognitive development. Hum Dev. 1993;36:61–81.
Krohn MD. Social learning theory: the continuing development of a perspective. Theor Criminol. 1999;3:462–76.
Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall SN. Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group; 2015.
Mikulincer M, Shaver PR. The attachment behavioral system in adulthood: activation, psychodynamics, and interpersonal processes. In: Zanna MP, editor. Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 35. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press; 2003. p. 53–152.
Bowlby J, Bowlby J. Separation: anxiety and anger. Pimlico; 1998.
Bowlby J. Developmental psychiatry comes of age. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:1–10.
Bowlby J, Bowlby J. Loss: sadness and depression. London: Hogarth Press; 1980.
Verhage ML, et al. Examining ecological constraints on the intergenerational transmission of attachment via individual participant data meta-analysis. Child Dev. 2018;89:2023–37.
van IJzendoorn MH. Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: a meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychol Bull. 1995;117:387–403.
Hertsgaard L, Gunnar M, Erickson MF, Nachmias M. Adrenocortical responses to the strange situation in infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships. Child Dev. 1995;66:1100–6.
Spangler G, Grossmann KE. Biobehavioral organization in securely and insecurely attached infants. Child Dev. 1993;64:1439–50.
Cyr C, Euser EM, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Van Ijzendoorn MH. Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: a series of meta-analyses. Dev Psychopathol. 2010;22:87–108.
Fearon RP, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van Ijzendoorn MH, Lapsley A-M, Roisman GI. The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children’s externalizing behavior: a meta-analytic study. Child Dev. 2010;81:435–56.
Madigan S, Brumariu LE, Villani V, Atkinson L, Lyons-Ruth K. Representational and questionnaire measures of attachment: a meta-analysis of relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems. Psychol Bull. 2016;142:367–99.
Escobar MJ, et al. Attachment patterns trigger differential neural signature of emotional processing in adolescents. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70247.
Mikulincer M, Florian V. The relationship between adult attachment styles and emotional and cognitive reactions to stressful events. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. Guilford; New York; 1998. p. 143–65.
Mikulincer M, Shaver PR. Attachment theory and emotions in close relationships: Exploring the attachment-related dynamics of emotional reactions to relational events. Pers Relatsh. 2005;12:149–68.
Parrigon KS, Kerns KA, Abtahi MM, Koehn A. Attachment and emotion in middle childhood and adolescence. Psychol Top. 2015;24:27–50.
Kobak R, Zajac K, Abbott C, Zisk A, Bounoua N. Atypical dimensions of caregiver–adolescent interaction in an economically disadvantaged sample. Dev Psychopathol. 2017;29:405–16.
Kobak RR, Sceery A. Attachment in late adolescence: working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child Dev. 1988;59:135–46.
Hazan C, Shaver PR. Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships. Psychol Inq. 1994;5:1–22.
Cassidy J, Poehlmann J, Shaver PR. An attachment perspective on incarcerated parents and their children. Attach Hum Dev. 2010;12:285–8.
Shaver PR, Mikulincer M. Attachment-related psychodynamics. Attach Hum Dev. 2002;4:133–61.
Lyons-Ruth K, Jacobvitz D. Attachment disorganization: genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from infancy to adulthood. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. p. 666–97.
Moretti MM, Obsuth I, Craig SG, Bartolo T. An attachment-based intervention for parents of adolescents at risk: mechanisms of change. Attach Hum Dev. 2015;17:119–35.
Spear LP. The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2000;24:417–63.
Bukstein OG. Challenges and gaps in understanding substance use problems in transitional age youth. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2017;26:253–69.
Kempfer SS, et al. Epidemiology of depression in low income and low education adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Grant Med J. 2017;2:67–77.
Reijonen JH, Pratt HD, Patel DR, Greydanus DE. Eating disorders in the adolescent population: an overview. J Adolesc Res. 2003;18:209–22.
Beauchaine TP. Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2015;44:875–96.
Beauchaine TP, Cicchetti D. Emotion dysregulation and emerging psychopathology: a transdiagnostic, transdisciplinary perspective. Dev Psychopathol. 2019;31:799–804.
Frick PJ, Morris AS. Temperament and developmental pathways to conduct problems. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2004;33:54–68.
Morris AS, Silk JS, Steinberg L, Myers SS, Robinson LR. The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Soc Dev Oxf Engl. 2007;16:361–88.
Oskis A, Loveday C, Hucklebridge F, Thorn L, Clow A. Anxious attachment style and salivary cortisol dysregulation in healthy female children and adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:111–8.
Silk JS, Steinberg L, Morris AS. Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily life: links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Dev. 2003;74:1869–80.
Spangler G, Zimmermann P. Attachment representation and emotion regulation in adolescents: a psychobiological perspective on internal working models. Attach Hum Dev. 1999;1:270–90.
Zimmermann P, Ivansky A. Emotion regulation from early adolescence to emerging adulthood and middle adulthood: age differences, gender differences, and emotion-specific developmental variations. Int J Behav Dev. 2014;38:182–94.
Kobak RR, Duemmler S. Attachment and conversation: toward a discourse analysis of adolescent and adult security. In: In Bartholomew K, Perlman D, editors. Advances in personal relationships. Attachment processes in adulthood, vol. 5. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 1994. p. 121–49.
Feldman R, Bamberger E, Kanat-Maymon Y. Parent-specific reciprocity from infancy to adolescence shapes children’s social competence and dialogical skills. Attach Hum Dev. 2013;15:407–23.
Abraham E, Feldman R. The neurobiology of human allomaternal care; implications for fathering, coparenting, and children’s social development. Physiol Behav. 2018;193:25–34.
Rabin SJ, Bamberger E, Mor-Snir I, Feldman R, Golan O. Parent–adolescent reciprocity in a conflictual situation predicts peer interaction in adolescents with ASD. Autism Res. 2019;12:263–73.
Marceau K, et al. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;41:33–45.
Brumariu LE, et al. Middle Childhood Attachment Strategies: validation of an observational measure. Attach Hum Dev. 2018;20:491–513.
Roisman GL, Padrón E, Sroufe LA, Egeland B. Earned-secure attachment status in retrospect and prospect. Child Dev. 2002;73:1204–19.
Sroufe LA, Egeland B, Carlson E, Collins WA. Placing early attachment experiences in developmental context: the Minnesota longitudinal study. In Grossmann KE, Grossman K, Waters E, editors. Attachment from infancy to adulthood: the major longitudinal studies (2005). p. 48–70.
Grossmann K, Grossmann KE, Kindler H, Zimmermann P. A wider view of attachment and exploration: The influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. The Guilford Press; 2008. p. 857–79.
Meins E. Sensitivity, security and internal working models: bridging the transmission gap. Attach Hum Dev. 1999;1:325–42.
Moretti MM, Peled M. Adolescent–parent attachment: bonds that support healthy development. Paediatr Child Health. 2004;9:551–5.
Scott S, Briskman J, Woolgar M, Humayun S, O’Connor TG. Attachment in adolescence: overlap with parenting and unique prediction of behavioural adjustment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:1052–62.
Chack A. Adult sensitivity to children’s learning in the zone of proximal development. J Theory Soc Behav. 2001;31:383–95.
Beijersbergen MD, Juffer F, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:1277–82.
Allen JP, et al. A secure base in adolescence: markers of attachment security in the mother–adolescent relationship. Child Dev. 2003;74:292–307.
Becker-Stoll F, Fremmer-Bombik E, Wartner U, Zimmermann P, Grossmann KE. Is attachment at ages 1, 6 and 16 related to autonomy and relatedness behavior of adolescents in interaction towards their mothers? Int J Behav Dev. 2008;32:372–80.
Grossmann K, Grossmann K, Kindler H, Zimmermann P. A wider view of attachment and exploration: the influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. In Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications (2008).
Beijersbergen MD, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van Ijzendoorn MH, Juffer F. Stress regulation in adolescents: physiological reactivity during the adult attachment interview and conflict interaction. Child Dev. 2008;79:1707–20.
Dewitte M, De Houwer J, Koster EHW, Buysse A. What’s in a name? Attachment-related attentional bias. Emot Wash DC. 2007;7:535–45.
Silva C, et al. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures. Scand J Psychol. 2015;56:327–34.
Vandevivere E, Braet C, Bosmans G, Mueller SC, De Raedt R. Attachment and children’s biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103476.
Kammermeier M, Duran Perez L, König L, Paulus M. Attachment security and attention to facial emotional expressions in pre-schoolers: An eye-tracking study. Br J Dev Psychol. 2020;38:167–85.
Bosmans G, Braet C, Heylen J, De Raedt R. Children’s attentional processing of mother and proximity seeking. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0124038.
Vandevivere E, Van de Brance S, Bosmans G, Mueller SC, Braet C. The role of attachment anxiety in maternal attentional processing of their child’s face: an eye-tracking study. J Exp Psychopathol. 2016;7:360–73.
Wallin BG. Sympathetic nerve activity underlying electrodermal and cardiovascular reactions in man. Psychophysiology. 1981;18:470–6.
Vrana SR. Emotional modulation of skin conductance and eyeblink responses to startle probe. Psychophysiology. 1995;32:351–7.
George C, Kaplan N, Main M. Attachment interview for adults (1985).
Taylor NC, Seedall RB, Robinson WD, Bradford K. The systemic interaction of attachment on psychophysiological arousal in couple conflict. J Marital Fam Ther. 2018;44:46–60.
Diamond LM, Hicks AM, Otter-Henderson K. Physiological evidence for repressive coping among avoidantly attached adults. J Soc Pers Relatsh. 2006;23:205–29.
Szymanska M, et al. How do adolescents regulate distress according to attachment style? A combined eye-tracking and neurophysiological approach. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019;89:39–47.
Vulliez-Coady L, Monnin J, Szymanska M. Visual/Autonomic Regulation of Emotions Assessment, VAREA. Unpublished protocol.
Bifulco A, Jacobs C, Bunn A, Thomas G, Irving K. The Attachment Style Interview (ASI): a support-based adult assessment tool for adoption and fostering practice. Adopt Foster. 2008;32:33–45.
Sroufe LA, Waters E. Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Dev. 1977;48:1184–99.
Obsuth I, Hennighausen K, Brumariu LE, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized behavior in adolescent–parent interaction: relations to attachment state of mind, partner abuse, and psychopathology. Child Dev. 2014;85:370–87.
Weinfield NS, Whaley GJ, Egeland B. Continuity, discontinuity, and coherence in attachment from infancy to late adolescence: sequelae of organization and disorganization. Attach Hum Dev. 2004;6:73–97.
Lyons-Ruth K, Brumariu LE, Bureau J-F, Hennighausen K, Holmes B. Role confusion and disorientation in young adult-parent interaction among individuals with borderline symptomatology. J Personal Disord. 2015;29:641–62.
Lyons-Ruth K, Hennighausen K, Holmes B. Goal corrected partnership in adolescence coding system (GPACS): coding manual (Version 2) (2005).
Byun S, Brumariu LE, Lyons-Ruth K. Disorganized attachment in young adulthood as a partial mediator of relations between severity of childhood abuse and dissociation. J Trauma Dissoc. 2016;17:460–79.
Khoury JE, et al. Disorganized attachment interactions among young adults with borderline personality disorder, other diagnoses, and no diagnosis. J Person Disord. 2020;34:764–84.
Szymanska M, et al. The Besançon affective picture set-adolescents (the BAPS-Ado): development and validation. Psychiatry Res. 2015;228:576–84.
Bosmans G, Sanchez-Lopez A, Finet C, De Raedt R. Attachment-related attention bias plays a causal role in trust in maternal support. J Exp Child Psychol. 2019;185:176–90.
Kirsh SJ, Cassidy J. Preschoolers’ attention to and memory for attachment-relevant information. Child Dev. 1997;68:1143–53.
Szymanska M, et al. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on emotion regulation in insecure adolescents: study protocol for a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc. 2016;5:e206.
Holmqvist K, Andersson R. Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods, paradigms, and measures. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace; 2017.
Duncan J, Ward R, Shapiro K. Direct measurement of attentional dwell time in human vision. Nature. 1994;369:313–5.
Jacob RJK, Karn KS. Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research. In: Hyona J, Deubel H, editors. The Mind’s Eye: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2003. p. 573–605.
Thompson D, Mackenzie IG, Leuthold H, Filik R. Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: evidence from EDA and facial EMG. Psychophysiology. 2016;53:1054–62.
Siller A, Ambach W, Vaitl D. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1553.
Hazra A, Gogtay N. Biostatistics Series Module 6: Correlation and Linear Regression. Indian J Dermatol. 2016;61:593–601.
Main, M., Goldwyn, R. & Hesse. Adult attachment scoring and classification system. (2003).
Brumariu LE, Kerns KA. Mother-child emotion communication and childhood anxiety symptoms. Cogn Emot. 2015;29:416–31.
Hudson JL, Comer JS, Kendall PC. Parental responses to positive and negative emotions in anxious and nonanxious children. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37:303–13.
Cassidy J. Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1994;59:228–49.
Schoett MJS, Basten U, Deichmann R, Fiebach CJ, Fischmann T. Brain responses to social cues of attachment in mid-childhood. Attach Hum Dev. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2020.1840791.
Macfie J, Brumariu LE, Lyons-Ruth K. Parent–child role-confusion: a critical review of an emerging concept. Dev Rev. 2015;36:34–57.
Vulliez-Coady L, Solheim E, Nahum JP, Lyons-Ruth K. Role-confusion in parent–child relationships: assessing mother’s representations and its implications for counselling and psychotherapy practice. Eurpean J Couns Psychol. 2016;4:205–27.
Dozier M, Kobak RR. Psychophysiology in attachment interviews: converging evidence for deactivating strategies. Child Dev. 1992;63:1473–80.
Zimmermann P, Maier MA, Winter M, Grossmann KE. Attachment and adolescent’s emotion regulation during a joint problem-solving task with a friend. Int J Behav Dev. 2001;25:331–43.