Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. Therapist competence, therapy quality, and therapist training. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49(6–7):373–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.03.005.
Kazantzis N. Therapist competence in cognitive-behavioural therapies: review of the contemporary empirical evidence. Behav Chang. 2003;20(1):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1375/bech.184.108.40.20645.
Manring J, Beitman BD, Dewan MJ. Evaluating competence in psychotherapy. Acad Psychiatry. 2003;27(3):136–44. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ap.27.3.136.
Branson A, Shafran R, Myles P. Investigating the relationship between competence and patient outcome with CBT. Behav Res Ther. 2015;68:19–26.
Webb CA, DeRubeis RJ, Barber JP. Therapist adherence/competence and treatment outcome: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78(2):200. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018912.
Young J, Beck AT. Cognitive therapy scale: rating manual. Philadelphia: Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy; 1980.
Blackburn I-M, James IA, Milne DL, Baker C, Standart S, Garland A, Reichelt FK. The revised cognitive therapy scale (CTS-R): psychometric properties. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2001;29(4):431–46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465801004040.
Muse K, McManus F. A systematic review of methods for assessing competence in cognitive–behavioural therapy. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(3):484–99.
Goldberg SB, Baldwin SA, Merced K, Caperton DD, Imel ZE, Atkins DC, Creed T. The structure of competence: evaluating the factor structure of the cognitive therapy rating scale. Behav Ther. 2020;51(1):113–22.
Trepka C, Rees A, Shapiro DA, Hardy GE, Barkham M. Therapist competence and outcome of cognitive therapy for depression. Cogn Ther Res. 2004;28(2):143–57. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COTR.0000021536.39173.66.
Kazantzis N, Clayton X, Cronin TJ, Farchione D, Limburg K, Dobson KS. The Cognitive Therapy Scale and Cognitive Therapy Scale-Revised as measures of therapist competence in cognitive behavior therapy for depression: relations with short and long term outcome. Cogn Ther Res. 2018;42(4):385–97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-018-9919-4.
Kuyken W, Tsivrikos D. Therapist competence, comorbidity and cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Psychother Psychosom. 2009;78(1):42–8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000172619.
Liness S, Beale S, Lea S, Byrne S, Hirsch CR, Clark DM. Multi-professional IAPT CBT training: clinical competence and patient outcomes. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2019;47(6):672–85. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465819000201.
Weck F, Grikscheit F, Höfling V, Kordt A, Hamm AO, Gerlach AL, Alpers GW, Arolt V, Kircher T, Pauli P. The role of treatment delivery factors in exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Anxiety Disord. 2016;42:10–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.05.007.
Bruijniks SJ, DeRubeis RJ, Lemmens LH, Peeters FP, Cuijpers P, Huibers MJ. The relation between therapy quality, therapy processes and outcomes and identifying for whom therapy quality matters in CBT and IPT for depression. Behav Res Therapy. 2021;139: 103815.
Liness S, Beale S, Lea S, Byrne S, Hirsch CR, Clark DM. The sustained effects of cbt training on therapist competence and patient outcomes. Cogn Ther Res. 2019;43(3):631–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-018-9987-5.
Kühne F, Meister R, Maaß U, Paunov T, Weck F. How Reliable are therapeutic competence ratings? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cogn Ther Res. 2020;44(2):241–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-019-10056-5.
Weck F, Richtberg S, Esch S, Höfling V, Stangier U. The relationship between therapist competence and homework compliance in maintenance cognitive therapy for recurrent depression: secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Behav Ther. 2013;44(1):162–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.09.004.
Impala T, Dobson KS, Kazantzis N. Does the working alliance mediate the therapist competence-outcome relationship in cognitive behavior therapy for depression? Psychother Res. 2022;32:16–28.
Goldberg SB, Rousmaniere T, Miller SD, Whipple J, Nielsen SL, Hoyt WT, Wampold BE. Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical setting. J Couns Psychol. 2016;63(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000131.
Moorhead S. IAPT: Improving Access to Psychiatric Training. CBT delivery by junior psychiatrists in primary care is good for the service, good for training and good for patients. Cognit Behav Therapist. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X1500015X.
Branson A, Myles P, Mahdi M, Shafran R. The relationship between competence and patient outcome with low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2018;46(1):101–14.
Saxon D, Barkham M. Patterns of therapist variability: Therapist effects and the contribution of patient severity and risk. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(4):535. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028898.
Swift JK, Greenberg RP. Premature discontinuation in adult psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(4):547. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028226.
Weck F, Bohn C, Ginzburg DM, Stangier U. Assessment of adherence and competence in cognitive therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions. Psychother Res. 2011;21(6):658–69.
Roth A. A new scale for the assessment of competences in cognitive and behavioural therapy. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2016;44(5):620–4. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465816000011.
Roth A, Pilling S. Using an evidence-based methodology to identify the competences required to deliver effective cognitive and behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety disorders. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2008;36(2):129–47. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465808004141.
Hundt NE, Mignogna J, Underhill C, Cully JA. The relationship between use of CBT skills and depression treatment outcome: a theoretical and methodological review of the literature. Behav Ther. 2013;44(1):12–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.10.001.
Roos J, Werbart A. Therapist and relationship factors influencing dropout from individual psychotherapy: a literature review. Psychother Res. 2013;23(4):394–418. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2013.775528.
Beale S, Vitoratou S, Liness S. An investigation into the factor structure of the Cognitive Therapy Scale–Revised (CTS-R) in a CBT training sample. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2021;49(6):721–31.
Affrunti NW, Creed TA. The Factor Structure of the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS) in a sample of Community Mental Health Clinicians. Cogn Ther Res. 2019;43(3):642–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-019-09998-7.
Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15(2):155–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012.
Liljequist D, Elfving B, Skavberg Roaldsen K. Intraclass correlation—a discussion and demonstration of basic features. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(7): e0219854. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219854.
Portney L. Foundations of clinical research: applications to evidence-based practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 2020.
Bujang MA, Baharum N. A simplified guide to determination of sample size requirements for estimating the value of intraclass correlation coefficient: a review. Arch Orofac Sci. 2017;12(1):1–11.
Loades ME, Armstrong P. The challenge of training supervisors to use direct assessments of clinical competence in CBT consistently: a systematic review and exploratory training study. Cognit Behav Therapist. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X15000288.
Vallis TM, Shaw BF, Dobson KS. The Cognitive Therapy Scale: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986;54(3):381. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.3.381.
Kazantzis N, Whittington C, Zelencich L, Kyrios M, Norton PJ, Hofmann SG. Quantity and quality of homework compliance: a meta-analysis of relations with outcome in cognitive behavior therapy. Behav Ther. 2016;47(5):755–72.
Yew RY, Dobson KS, Zyphur M, Kazantzis N. Mediators and moderators of homework-outcome relations in CBT for depression: a study of engagement, therapist skill, and client factors. Cognit Therapy Res. 2021;45:209–23.
Liness S, Beale S, Clark DM, Salkovskis PM, Ehlers A, Wild J. Assessing panic disorder-specific competencies: evaluation of the Cognitive Therapy Competence Scale for panic disorder. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2021;49(2):197–205.
Roth A, Myles-Hooton P, Branson A. Judging clinical competence using structured observation tools: a cautionary tale. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2019;47(6):736–44. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465819000316.
Shaw BF, Elkin I, Yamaguchi J, Olmsted M, Vallis TM, Dobson KS, Lowery A, Sotsky SM, Watkins JT, Imber SD. Therapist competence ratings in relation to clinical outcome in cognitive therapy of depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(6):837. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.6.837.