Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jacobi F, Allgulander C, Alonso J, Beghi E, et al. Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(10):718–79.
Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Chatterji S, Lee S, Ormel J, et al. The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009;18(1):23–33.
Ingram RE, Luxton DD. Vulnerability-stress models. In: Hankin BL, Abela JRZ, editors. Development of psychopathology: a vulnerability-stress perspective. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.; 2005. p. 32–46.
Dobson KS, Kendall PC. Psychopathology and cognition. San Diego: Academic Press; 1993.
Hankin BL, Snyder HR, Gulley LD. Cognitive risks in developmental psychopathology. In: Cicchetti D, editor. Developmental psychopathology: Maladaptation and psychopathology. Hoboken: Wiley; 2016. p. 312–85.
Ehring T, Watkins ER. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. Int J Cogn Ther. 2008;1(3):192–205.
Borkovec TD, Alcaine OM, Behar E. Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In: Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice. New York: Guilford Press; 2004. p. 77–108.
Clark DM, Wells A. A cognitive model of social phobia. In: Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press; 1995. p. 69–93.
Ehlers A, Clark DM. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2000;38(4):319–45.
Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100(4):569–82.
Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspect Psychol Sci J Assoc Psychol Sci. 2008;3(5):400–24.
Drost J, van der Does W, van Hemert AM, Penninx BWJH, Spinhoven P. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety: a conceptual replication. Behav Res Ther. 2014;63:177–83.
Hong RY. Worry and rumination: differential associations with anxious and depressive symptoms and coping behavior. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45(2):277–90.
Kircanski K, Thompson RJ, Sorenson JE, Sherdell L, Gotlib IH. Rumination and worry in daily life: examining the naturalistic validity of theoretical constructs. Clin Psychol Sci. 2015;3(6):926–39.
McEvoy PM, Watson H, Watkins ER, Nathan P. The relationship between worry, rumination, and comorbidity: evidence for repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic construct. J Affect Disord. 2013;151(1):313–20.
Ruscio AM, Gentes EL, Jones JD, Hallion LS, Coleman ES, Swendsen J. Rumination predicts heightened responding to stressful life events in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2015;124(1):17–26.
Ehring T, Ehlers A. Does rumination mediate the relationship between emotion regulation ability and posttraumatic stress disorder? Eur J Psychotraumatology. 2014;5.
Nolen-Hoeksema S, Stice E, Wade E, Bohon C. Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol. 2007;116(1):198–207.
Caselli G, Ferretti C, Leoni M, Rebecchi D, Rovetto F, Spada MM. Rumination as a predictor of drinking behaviour in alcohol abusers: a prospective study. Addiction. 2010;105(6):1041–8.
Devynck F, Rousseau A, Romo L. Does repetitive negative thinking influence alcohol use? A systematic review of the literature. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1482.
McLaughlin KA, Borkovec TD, Sibrava NJ. The effects of worry and rumination on affect states and cognitive activity. Behav Ther. 2007;38(1):23–38.
Kertz SJ, Koran J, Stevens KT, Björgvinsson T. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy. Behav Res Ther. 2015;68:54–63.
Gustavson DE, du Pont A, Whisman MA, Miyake A. Evidence for transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking and its association with rumination, worry, and depression and anxiety symptoms: a commonality analysis. Collabra Psychol. 2018;4(1):13.
Harvey AG, Watkins E, Mansell W, Shafran R. Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: a transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 380.
Mansell W, Harvey A, Watkins E, Shafran R. Conceptual foundations of the transdiagnostic approach to CBT. J Cogn Psychother. 2009;23(1):6–19.
Fresco DM, Frankel AN, Mennin DS, Turk CL, Heimberg RG. Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: the relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cogn Ther Res. 2002;26(2):179–88.
Muris P, Roelofs J, Meesters C, Boomsma P. Rumination and worry in nonclinical adolescents. Cogn Ther Res. 2004;28(4):539–54.
McEvoy PM, Mahoney AEJ, Moulds ML. Are worry, rumination, and post-event processing one and the same?: Development of the repetitive thinking questionnaire. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24(5):509–19.
Segerstrom SC, Tsao JCI, Alden LE, Craske MG. Worry and rumination: repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cogn Ther Res. 2000;24(6):671–88.
Spinhoven P, Drost J, van Hemert B, Penninx BW. Common rather than unique aspects of repetitive negative thinking are related to depressive and anxiety disorders and symptoms. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;33:45–52.
Samtani S, McEvoy PM, Mahoney AEJ, Werner-Seidler A, Li SSY, McGill BC, et al. Examining a transdiagnostic measure of repetitive thinking in depressed, formerly depressed and never-depressed individuals. J Affect Disord. 2018;229:515–22.
Spinhoven P, van Hemert AM, Penninx BW. Repetitive negative thinking as a predictor of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2018;241:216–25.
Spinhoven P, van Hemert AM, Penninx BW. Repetitive negative thinking as a mediator in prospective cross-disorder associations between anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2019;63:6–11.
Wahl K, Ehring T, Kley H, Lieb R, Meyer A, Kordon A, et al. Is repetitive negative thinking a transdiagnostic process? A comparison of key processes of RNT in depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and community controls. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2019;64:45–53.
Krueger RF. The structure of common mental disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(10):921–6.
Wittchen H-U. rates of mental disorders among german soldiers deployed to afghanistan: increased risk of PTSD or of mental disorders in general? J Depress Anxiety. 2013 [cited 2021 Jun 11];02(02). https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/rates-of-mental-disorders-among-german-soldiers-deployed-to-afghanistan-increased-risk-of-ptsd-or-of-mental-disorders-in-general-2167-1044.1000133.php?aid=16223
Abela JRZ, Brozina K, Haigh EP. An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third- and seventh-grade children: a short-term longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30(5):515–27.
Abela JRZ, Hankin BL. Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression during the transition from early to middle adolescence: a multiwave longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120(2):259–71.
Raes F. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depressed mood at 3-year follow-up in students. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2012;34(4):497–501.
Hijne K, Penninx BW, van Hemert AM, Spinhoven P. The association of changes in repetitive negative thinking with changes in depression and anxiety. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:157–64.
Stamatis CA, Puccetti NA, Charpentier CJ, Heller AS, Timpano KR. Repetitive negative thinking following exposure to a natural stressor prospectively predicts altered stress responding and decision-making in the laboratory. Behav Res Ther. 2020;129:103609.
Wittchen H, Schönfeld S, Thurau C, Trautmann S, Galle M, Mark K, et al. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of PTSD and other mental disorders: design and methods of the PID-PTSD+3 study. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012;21(2):98–116.
Johnson DP, Whisman MA. Gender differences in rumination: a meta-analysis. Personal Individ Differ. 2013;55(4):367–74.
Trautmann S, Schönfeld S, Behrendt S, Heinrich A, Höfler M, Siegel S, et al. Predictors of changes in daily alcohol consumption in the aftermath of military deployment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;147:175–82.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). 2000.
Wittchen H-U, Pfister H. DIA-X-Interviews: Manual für Screening-Verfahren und Interview; Interviewheft Längsschnittuntersuchung (DIA-X-Lifetime); Ergänzungsheft (DIA-X-Lifetime); Interviewheft Querschnittuntersuchung (DIA-X-Monate); Ergänzungsheft (DIA-X-Monate); PC-Programm zur Durchführung des Interviews (Längs- und Querschnittuntersuchung); Auswertungsprogramm. Swets and Zeitlinger; 1997.
Ehring T, Zetsche U, Weidacker K, Wahl K, Schoenfeld S, Ehlers A. The perseverative thinking questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42(2):225–32.
Castro CA, Bienvenu RV, Hufmann AH, Adler AB. Soldier dimensions and operational readiness in U.S. Army forces deployed to Kosovo. Int Rev Armed Forces Med Serv. 2000;73:191–200.
Hoge CW, Castro CA, Messer SC, McGurk D, Cotting DI, Koffman RL. Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(1):13–22.
Corp S. Stata statistical software. College Station: Stata Corporation; 2017.
Royall RM. Model robust confidence intervals using maximum likelihood estimators. Int Stat Rev Rev Int Stat. 1986;54(2):221–6.
Crespo L, López-Noval B, Mira P. Compulsory schooling, education, depression and memory: new evidence from SHARELIFE. Econ Educ Rev. 2014;43:36–46.
Sütterlin S, Paap MCS, Babic S, Kübler A, Vögele C. Rumination and age: some things get better. J Aging Res. 2012;2:1–10.
Cornfield J. A method of estimating comparative rates from clinical data applications to cancer of the lung, breast, and cervix. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1951;11(6):1269–75.
Rothman K, Greenland S, Lash TL. Modern epidemiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williamd & Wilk; 2008. p. 61.
Logistic PD. Logistic regression diagnostics. Ann Stat. 1981;9(4):705–24.
Kessler RC, Amminger GP, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Lee S, Ustun TB. Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007;20(4):359–64.
Yu Y, Williams DR. Socioeconomic status and mental health. In: Aneshensel CS, Phelan JC, editors. Handbook of the sociology of mental health (Handbooks of sociology and social research). Boston: Springer; 1999. p. 151–66.
Miller RG. Beyond ANOVA: basics of applied statistics. Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall/CRC; 1997.
Stavro K, Pelletier J, Potvin S. Widespread and sustained cognitive deficits in alcoholism: a meta-analysis. Addict Biol. 2013;18(2):203–13.
Fusar-Poli P, Solmi M, Brondino N, Davies C, Chae C, Politi P, et al. Transdiagnostic psychiatry: a systematic review. World Psychiatry. 2019;18(2):192–207.
Vanderhasselt M-A, Brose A, Koster EHW, De Raedt R. Co-variation between stressful events and rumination predicts depressive symptoms: an eighteen months prospective design in undergraduates. Behav Res Ther. 2016;87:128–33.
McEvoy PM, Moulds ML, Mahoney AEJ. Mechanisms driving pre- and post-stressor repetitive negative thinking: metacognitions, cognitive avoidance, and thought control. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2013;44(1):84–93.
Ghazanfari F, Rezaei M, Rezaei F. The mediating role of repetitive negative thinking and experiential avoidance on the relationship between childhood trauma and depression. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018;32(3):432–8.
Harvey AG, Murray G, Chandler RA, Soehner A. Sleep disturbance as transdiagnostic: consideration of neurobiological mechanisms. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(2):225–35.
Sauer-Zavala S, Gutner CA, Farchione TJ, Boettcher HT, Bullis JR, Barlow DH. Current definitions of “transdiagnostic” in treatment development: a search for consensus. Behav Ther. 2017;48(1):128–38.
Kazdin AE, Kraemer HC, Kessler RC, Kupfer DJ, Offord DR. Contributions of risk-factor research to developmental psychopathology. Clin Psychol Rev. 1997;17(4):375–406.