Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of CALD and non-CALD participants

From: Exploring presentation differences in multi-cultural youth seeking assistance for mental health problems

  CALD [n = 128] Not CALD [n = 612] OR [95% CI]
Demographic
Age [range, 12–25 years] 18.6 [3.2]a 18.2 [3.2]a 0.39 [− 0.22, 1.00]b
Female 88 [68.8%] 408 [66.7%] 1.10 [0.73, 1.66]
Australian-born 88 [68.8%] 587 [95.9%] 0.09 [0.05, 0.16]gj
Education status
Not engaged in education 33 [26.0%] 202 [33.9%]  
School 39 [30.7%] 226 [37.9%] 1.06 [0.64, 1.74]
Vocational institution 16 [12.6%] 70 [11.7%] 1.40 [0.73, 2.70]
University 39 [30.7%] 98 [16.4%] 2.44 [1.44, 4.11]gi
Employment status
Unemployed 70 [54.7%] 379 [61.9%]  
Full-time 9 [7.0%] 50 [8.2%] 0.97 [0.46, 2.07]
Part-time 49 [38.3%] 183 [29.9%] 1.45 [0.97, 2.17]
Relationship status
Not in a relationship 84 [65.6%] 378 [61.8%]  
Married / living together (> 6 months) 4 [3.1%] 21 [3.4%] 0.86 [0.29, 2.56]
Non-spousal partner 40 [31.3%] 213 [34.8%] 0.85 [0.56, 1.28]
Accommodation status
Boarding house / hostel 4 [3.3%] 10 [1.7%]  
Independent housing 116 [96.7%] 571 [98.3%] 0.51 [0.16, 1.65]
Welfare recipient 53 [52.0%] 221 [47.0%] 1.22 [0.79, 1.87]
Mental disorder
Child-onset disorder 8 [7.1%] 100 [17.3%] 0.34 [0.16, 0.71]fh
Clinical stage
Stage 0: Asymptomatic 3 [2.4%] 1 [0.2%]  
Stage 1a: Symptomatic 31 [24.4%] 235 [38.5%] 0.04 [< 0.01, 0.44]gi
Stage 1b: Attenuated syndrome 69 [54.3%] 312 [51.1%] 0.07 [< 0.01, 0.72]fh
Stages 2 +  24 [18.9%] 62 [10.2%] 0.13 [0.01, 1.30]e
Stage 2: Discrete disorder 21 [16.5%] 44 [7.2%]  
Stage 3: Recurrent or persistent disorder 3 [2.4%] 17 [2.8%]  
Stage 4: Severe, persistent, and unremitting illness 0 [0.0%] 1 [0.2%]  
Psychosis
Not at risk 72 [57.1%] 347 [57.3%]  
At risk 45 [35.7%] 220 [36.3%] 0.99 [0.65, 1.48]
Met threshold for psychosis 9 [7.1%] 39 [6.4%] 1.11 [0.52, 2.40]
Depression
None 28 [22.0%] 130 [21.3%]  
Mild 35 [27.6%] 204 [33.5%] 0.80 [0.46, 1.37]
Moderate 40 [31.5%] 172 [28.2%] 1.08 [0.63, 1.84]
Severe 23 [18.1%] 79 [13.0%] 1.35 [0.73, 2.51]
Very severe 1 [0.8%] 24 [3.9%] 0.19 [0.03, 1.49]
Anxietyc
None 29 [23.2%] 152 [25.0%]  
Mild 35 [28.0%] 135 [22.2%] 1.36 [0.79, 2.34]
Moderate 29 [23.2%] 166 [27.3%] 0.92 [0.52, 1.60]
Severe 32 [25.6%] 154 [25.4%] 1.09 [0.63, 1.89]
Family history of mental illness or suicide 66 [53.2%] 381 [63.9%] 0.64 [0.43, 0.95]e
Substance used
Tobacco 76 [59.8%] 412 [67.3%] 0.72 [0.49, 1.07]
Alcohol 101 [79.5%] 531 [86.8%] 0.59 [0.36, 0.97]e
Cannabis 54 [42.5%] 324 [52.9%] 0.66 [0.45, 0.97]e
Cocaine 17 [13.4%] 94 [15.4%] 0.85 [0.49, 1.48]
Stimulants 27 [21.3%] 163 [26.7%] 0.74 [0.47, 1.18]
Inhalants 8 [6.3%] 57 [9.3%] 0.65 [0.30, 1.41]
Sedatives 17 [13.4%] 94 [15.4%] 0.85 [0.49, 1.48]
Hallucinogens 14 [11.0%] 122 [20.0%] 0.50 [0.28, 0.90]e
Opioids 6 [4.7%] 36 [5.9%] 0.79 [0.33, 1.92]
Other drug(s) 4 [3.1%] 23 [3.8%] 0.83 [0.28, 2.45]
Injecting drug use 2 [1.6%] 18 [3.0%] 0.53 [0.12, 2.32]
Occupational functioning
Functional impairment 49 [38.6%] 227 [37.2%] 1.06 [0.72, 1.57]
Quality of life
Poor 29 [23.6%] 159 [26.3%]  
Average 46 [37.4%] 221 [36.6%] 1.14 [0.69, 1.90]
Good 48 [39.0%] 224 [37.1%] 1.17 [0.71, 1.94]
Forensic history
Non-violent charge 7 [5.6%] 43 [7.1%] 0.77 [0.34, 1.76]
Violent charge 3 [2.4%] 25 [4.2%] 0.57 [0.17, 1.92]
Violent victimization 20 [15.9%] 123 [20.2%] 0.75 [0.45, 1.25]
Child maltreatment
Physical abuse 44 [34.9%] 187 [30.7%] 1.21 [0.81, 1.82]
Sexual abuse 25 [19.8%] 133 [21.8%] 0.89 [0.55, 1.43]
Emotional abuse 91 [72.2%] 411 [67.5%] 1.25 [0.82, 1.92]
Physical neglect 57 [45.2%] 279 [45.8%] 0.98 [0.66, 1.44]
Emotional neglect 83 [65.9%] 395 [64.9%] 1.05 [0.70, 1.57]
Stigmatization 37 [42.5%] 177 [45.5%] 0.89 [0.55, 1.42]
Values are counts and percentages. Percentages are expressed as a function of valid cases rather than total cases
aValues are means (standard deviations). bMean difference. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval. cAnxiety symptoms measured using the GAD-7. dLifetime use
Significance testing: ep < .05, fp < .01, gp < .001. Values corrected for multiple testing using a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%: hq < .05, iq < .01, jq < .001