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Table 1 Constructs used in previous temporal focus studies

From: Validation study of the Italian version of Temporal Focus Scale: psychometric properties and convergent validity

Constructs Association evidence References
Optimism Past focus was negatively related to optimism [21]
Satisfaction with life and subjective well-being Inverse association between past focus and life satisfaction; relationship between a balanced time perspective and subjective well-being [37,38,39,40,41]
Self-efficacy Future orientation was associated with higher self-efficacy [42]
Depression Depressive rumination was associated with past orientation [32, 36]
Anxiety Persons with anxiety symptoms were more prone to look upon their future with worry and negative anticipation and to recall their past with regret and aversive feelings [32,33,34,35]
Regulatory modes Locomotion was characterized by future focus and reluctance to revisit the past; assessment showed a positive relationship with nostalgia [43, 44]