Masters K, Ellaway RH, Topps D, Archibald D, Hogue RJ. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE guide no. 105. Med Teach. 2016;38(6):537–49.
Joshi N, Lin M. The smartphone: how it is transforming medical education, patient care, and professional collaboration. African J Emergency Med. 2013;4(3):152–4.
Kwon M, Kim D-J, Cho H, Yang S. The smartphone addiction scale: development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83558.
Chen B, Liu F, Ding S, Ying X, Wang L, Wen Y. Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross-sectional study among medical college students. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):341.
Sandholzer M, Deutsch T, Frese T, Winter A. Predictors of students’ self-reported adoption of a smartphone application for medical education in general practice. BMC Med Educ. 2015;15(1):91.
Robinson T, Cronin T, Ibrahim H, Jinks M, Molitor T, Newman J, et al. Smartphone use and acceptability among clinical medical students: a questionnaire-based study. J Med Syst. 2013;37(3):9936.
Almunawar MN, Anshari M, Susanto H, Chen CK. Revealing customer behavior on smartphones. Int J Asian Business Information Manage (IJABIM). 2015;6(2):33–49.
De-Sola J, Talledo H, Rubio G, de Fonseca FR. Development of a mobile phone addiction craving scale and its validation in a Spanish adult population. Front Psych. 2017;8:90.
Van Deursen AJ, Bolle CL, Hegner SM, Kommers PA. Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: the role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;45:411–20.
Malaysian Communications And Multimedia Comission. Hand phone users Survery 2017; 2017. Available from: https://www.mcmc.gov.my/skmmgovmy/media/General/pdf/HPUS2017.pdf.
Chiu S-I. The relationship between life stress and smartphone addiction on Taiwanese university student: a mediation model of learning self-efficacy and social self-efficacy. Comput Hum Behav. 2014;34:49–57.
Demirci K, Akgönül M, Akpinar A. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(2):85–92.
Ghosh A, Jha R, Malakar SK. Pattern of smartphone use among MBBS students in an Indian medical college. IJAR. 2016;2(5):389–92.
Gowthami S, Kumar S. Impact of smartphone: a pilot study on positive and negative effects. Int J Scientific Eng Appl Sci (IJSEAS). 2016;2(3):473–8.
Toda M, Monden K, Kubo K, Morimoto K. Mobile phone dependence and health-related lifestyle of university students. Soc Behav Personal Int J. 2006;34(10):1277–84.
Ching SM, Yee A, Ramachandran V, Lim SMS, Sulaiman WAW, Foo YL, et al. Validation of a Malay version of the smartphone addiction scale among medical students in Malaysia. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139337.
Nikmat AW, Hashim NA, Saidi MF, Zaki NSM, Shukri NNH, Abdulla NB. The use and addiction to smart phones among medical students and staffs in a public University in Malaysia. Asean J Psychiatry. 2018;19(1):98–104.
Aljomaa SS, Qudah MFA, Albursan IS, Bakhiet SF, Abduljabbar AS. Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;61:155–64.
Venkatesh E, Al Jemal MY, Al Samani AS. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2017;31(1). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2016-0133.
Sethuraman AR, Rao S, Charlette L, Thatkar PV, Vincent V. Smartphone addiction among medical college students in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Int J Commun Med Public Health. 2018;5(10):4273–7.
Qudah MFA, Albursan IS, Bakhiet SFA, Hassan EMAH, Alfnan AA, Aljomaa SS, et al. Smartphone Addiction and Its Relationship with Cyberbullying Among University Students. Int J Ment Health Ad. 2019;17(3):628–43.
Alhazmi AA, Alzahrani SH, Baig M, Salawati EM, Alkatheri A. Prevalence and factors associated with smartphone addiction among medical students at king Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; 2018.
Tran TD, Tran T, Fisher J. Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13(1):24.
Alosaimi FD, Alyahya H, Alshahwan H, Mahyijari NA, Shaik SA. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2016;37(6):675–83.
Matar Boumosleh J, Jaalouk D. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students- a cross sectional study. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182239.
Yusoff MSB, Rahim AFA, Aziz RA, Pa MNM, Mey SC, Ja'afar R, et al. The validity and reliability of the USM personality inventory (USMaP-i): its use to identify personality of future medical students. Intern Med J. 2011;18(4):283–7.
Kwon M, Lee J-Y, Won W-Y, Park J-W, Min J-A, Hahn C, et al. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56936.
Alhassan AA, Alqadhib EM, Taha NW, Alahmari RA, Salam M, Almutairi AF. The relationship between addiction to smartphone usage and depression among adults: a cross sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2018;18(1):148.
Bian M, Leung L. Linking loneliness, shyness, smartphone addiction symptoms, and patterns of smartphone use to social capital. Soc Sci Comput Rev. 2015;33(1):61–79.
M-o K, Kim H, Kim K, Ju S, Choi J, Yu M. Smartphone addiction: (focused depression, aggression and impulsion) among college students. Indian J Sci Technol. 2015;8(25):1–6.
Hong ENC, Hao LZ, Kumar R, Ramendran C, Kadiresan V. An effectiveness of human resource management practices on employee retention in institute of higher learning: a regression analysis. Int J Bus Res Manag. 2012;3(2):60–79.
Jamal A, Temsah M-H, Khan SA, Al-Eyadhy A, Koppel C, Chiang MF. Mobile phone use among medical residents: a cross-sectional multicenter survey in Saudi Arabia. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016;4(2):e61.
Robinson R. Spectrum of tablet computer use by medical students and residents at an academic medical center. PeerJ. 2015;3:e1133.
Pulijala Y, Ma M, Ju X, Benington P, Ayoub A. Efficacy of three-dimensional visualization in mobile apps for patient education regarding orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45(9):1081–5.
Browne G, O’Reilly D, Waters C, Tummon O, Devitt D, Stewart B, et al. Smart-phone and medical app use amongst Irish medical students: a survey of use and attitudes. In: BMC proceedings; 2015. BioMed Central.
Cochrane T, editor Mobile social media as a catalyst for pedagogical change. EdMedia+ innovate learning; 2014: Association for the Advancement of computing in education (AACE).
Makoe M. Exploring the use of MXit: a cell-phone social network to facilitate learning in distance education. Open Learning. 2010;25(3):251–7.
Nicholson S. Socialization in the “virtual hallway”: instant messaging in the asynchronous web-based distance education classroom. Internet High Educ. 2002;5(4):363–72.
Rambe P, Bere A. Using mobile instant messaging to leverage learner participation and transform pedagogy at a S outh a frican U niversity of T echnology. Br J Educ Technol. 2013;44(4):544–61.
Raiman L, Antbring R, Mahmood A. WhatsApp messenger as a tool to supplement medical education for medical students on clinical attachment. BMC Med Educ. 2017;17(1):7.
Parasuraman S, Sam AT, Yee SWK, Chuon BLC, Ren LY. Smartphone usage and increased risk of mobile phone addiction: a concurrent study. Int J Pharmaceutical Investigation. 2017;7(3):125–31.
Hakkı B, Muhammed FP. Investigating the smart phone addictions of vocational school students from different variables. Malaysian Online J Educ Technol. 2018;6(4):40–52.
Shaffer HJ, Hall MN, Vander BJ. "computer addiction": a critical consideration. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2000;70(2):162.
Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD, Gjertsen SR, Krossbakken E, Kvam S, Pallesen S. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality. J Behav Addict. 2013;2(2):90.
Tsai HF, Cheng SH, Yeh TL, Shih C-C, Chen KC, Yang YC, et al. The risk factors of internet addiction—a survey of university freshmen. Psychiatry Res. 2009;167(3):294–9.
Bhagat V, Nayak RD. Neuroticism and academic performance of medical students. Int J Humanit Soc Sci Invent. 2014;3(1):51–5.
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Psychology Foundation of a. manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australia; 1995.
Yusoff MSB. Stability of the USMaP-i in measuring the big five personality traits. Intern Med J. 2013;20(1):1–3.
Yusoff MSB. Construct validity, internal consistency and normative data of the USMaP-i in a sample of medical students; 2013. p. 1–7.
Goldberg LR, Johnson JA, Eber HW, Hogan R, Ashton MC, Cloninger CR, et al. The international personality item pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. J Res Pers. 2006;40(1):84–96.
De Pasquale C, Sciacca F, Hichy Z. Italian validation of smartphone addiction scale short version for adolescents and young adults (SAS-SV). Psychology. 2017;8(10):1513.
Chóliz M. Mobile-phone addiction in adolescence: the test of mobile phone dependence (TMD). Progress Health Sci. 2012;2(1):33–44.
Dixit S, Shukla H, Bhagwat A, Bindal A, Goyal A, Zaidi AK, et al. A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of Central India. Indian J Commun Med. 2010;35(2):339.
Choi S-W, Kim D-J, Choi J-S, Ahn H, Choi E-J, Song W-Y, et al. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and internet addiction. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(4):308–14.
Mok J-Y, Choi S-W, Kim D-J, Choi J-S, Lee J, Ahn H, et al. Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:817.
Wang J-L, Wang H-Z, Gaskin J, Wang L-H. The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;53:181–8.
Barhoumi C. The effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on Students' knowledge management. Contemp Educ Technol. 2015;6(3):221–38.
Cooper A, Morahan-Martin J, Mathy RM, Maheu M. Toward an increased understanding of user demographics in online sexual activities. J Sex Marital Therapy. 2002;28(2):105–29.
Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Fratta W. Sex differences in addictive disorders. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014;35(3):272–84.
Johansson A, Götestam KG. Internet addiction: characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12–18 years). Scand J Psychol. 2004;45(3):223–9.
Ithnain N, Ezzat Ghazali S, Jaafar N. Relationship between smartphone addiction with anxiety and depression among undergraduate students in Malaysia; 2018. p. 163–71.
Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, Dewald-Kaufmann JF, Grob A. Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(2):405–18.
Aker S, Sahin MK, Sezgin S, Oguz G. Psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. J Addict Nurs. 2017;28(4):215–9.
Zhang KZ, Chen C, Lee MK. Understanding the role of motives in smartphone addictionPACIS; 2014.
Kim HJ, Min JY, Min KB. Association between psychological and self-assessed health status and smartphone overuse among Korean college students. J Ment Health. 2019;28(1):11–6.
Hwang K-H, Y-s Y, Cho O-H. Smartphone overuse and upper extremity pain, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal relationships among college students. J Korea Contents Assoc. 2012;12(10):365–75.
Haug S, Castro RP, Kwon M, Filler A, Kowatsch T, Schaub MP. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(4):299–307.
Billieux J, Maurage P, Lopez-Fernandez O, Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research. Curr Addict Rep. 2015;2(2):156–62.
Jeong S-H, Kim H, Yum J-Y, Hwang Y. What type of content are smartphone users addicted to?: SNS vs. games. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;54:10–7.
Murdock KK. Texting while stressed: implications for students’ burnout, sleep, and well-being. Psychol Pop Media Cult. 2013;2(4):207.
Yusoff MSB, Rahim AFA, Yaacob MJ. Prevalence and sources of stress among Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students. Malaysian J Medical Sci. 2010;17(1):30.
Kim N, Lee K. Effects of self-control and life stress on smart phone addiction of university students. J Korea Soc Health Informatics Stat. 2012;37(2):72–83.
Baumeister RF, Heatherton TF, Tice DM. Losing control: how and why people fail at self-regulation: academic press; 1994.
Toda M, Ezoe S, Mure K, Takeshita T. Relationship of smartphone dependence to general health status and personality traits among university students. Open J Prev Med. 2016;6(10):215–21.
Horwood S, Anglim J. Personality and problematic smartphone use: a facet-level analysis using the five factor model and HEXACO frameworks. Comput Hum Behav. 2018;85:349–59.
Bianchi A, Phillips JG. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8(1):39–51.
Augner C, Hacker GW. Associations between problematic mobile phone use and psychological parameters in young adults. Int J Public Health. 2012;57(2):437–41.
Pearson C, Hussain Z. Smartphone Use, Addiction, Narcissism, and Personality: A Mixed Methods Investigation. Int J Cyber Behav Psychol Learn. 2015;5:17–32.
Roberts JA, Pullig C, Manolis C. I need my smartphone: a hierarchical model of personality and cell-phone addiction. Personal Individ Differ. 2015;79:13–9.
Gao T, Xiang Y-T, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Mei S. Neuroticism and quality of life: multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression. Psychiatry Res. 2017;258:457–61.
Luria G. The mediating role of smartphone addiction on the relationship between personality and young drivers' smartphone use while driving. Transport Res F: Traffic Psychol Behav. 2018;59:203–11.
Kim J-H, Seo M, David P. Alleviating depression only to become problematic mobile phone users: can face-to-face communication be the antidote? Comput Hum Behav. 2015;51:440–7.
Hong F-Y, Chiu S-I, Huang D-H. A model of the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese university female students. Comput Hum Behav. 2012;28(6):2152–9.
Kim H. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction. J Exercise Rehabilitation. 2013;9(6):500.