Williamson D, Birmaher B, Ryan N, Shiffrin T, Lusky J, Protopapa J, et al. The stressful life events schedule for children and adolescents: development and validation. Psychiatry Res. 2003;119:225–41.
Hashim IH. Cultural and gender differences in perceptions of stressors and coping skill: a study of Western and African college students in China. Sch Psychol Int. 2003;24:182–203.
Pettit JW, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR, Roberts RE, Yaroslavsky I. Developmental relations between depressive symptoms, minor hassles, and major events from adolescence through age 30 years. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010;119:811–24.
LaRue DE, Herrman JW. Adolescent stress through the eyes of high-risk teens. Pediatr Nurs. 2008;34:375–80.
Kirchler E, Pombeni ML, Palmonari A. Sweet sixteen ... Adolescents’ problems and the peer group as source of support. Eur J Psychol Educ. 1991;6(4):393–410.
Collins WA, Laursen B. Parent-adolescent relationships and influences. In: Lerner RM, Steinberg L, editors. (Eds.) Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 331–361). Wiley: Hoboken, NJ; 2010.
Baharudin R, Zulkefly NS. Relationships with father and mother, self-esteem and academic achievement amongst college students. Am J Sci Res. 2009;6:86–94.
Nickerson AB, Nagle RJ. Parent and peer attachment in late childhood and early adolescence. J Early Adolesc. 2005;25:223–49.
Allen TD, Finkenkelstein LM. Beyond mentoring: alternative sources and functions of developmental support. Career Dev Q. 2003;51(4):346–55.
Reevyl GM, Maslach C. Use of social support: gender and personality differences. Sex Roles. 2001;44:437–59.
Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol Bull. 1985;98:310–57.
Emadpoor L, Lavasani MG, Shahcheraghi SM. Relationship between perceived social support and psychological well-being among students based on mediating role of academic motivation. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2016;14:284–90.
Wethington E, Kessler RC. Perceived support, received support, and adjustment to stressful life events. J Health Soc Behav. 1986;27:78–89.
Tian L, Liu B, Huang S, Huebner ES. Perceived social support and school well-being among Chinese early and middle adolescents: the mediational role of self-esteem. Soc Indic Res. 2013;113(3):991–1008..
Ratelle CF, Simard K, Guay F. University students’ subjective well-being: the role of autonomy support from parents, friends, and the romantic partner. J Happiness Stud. 2013;14(3):893–910.
Chen W, Zhang D, Pan Y, Hu T, Liu G, Luo S. Perceived social support and self-esteem as mediators of the relationship between parental attachment and life satisfaction among Chinese adolescents. Pers Individ Dif. 2017;108:98–102.
Suldo SM, Shaffer EJ. Looking beyond psychopathology: the dual-factor model of mental health in youth. School Psychol Rev. 2008;37(1):52–68.
Rosenberg M. Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books; 1979.
Rosenberg M, Schooler C, Schoenbach C, Rosenberg F. Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: different concepts, different outcomes. Am Sociol Rev. 1995;60:141–56.
Baumeister RF, Campbell JD, Krueger JI, Vohs KD. Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2003;4:1–44.
İkiz FE, Cakar FS. Perceived social support and self esteem in adolescence. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2010;5:2338–42.
Fabes RA, Carlo G, Kupanoff K, Laible D. Early adolescence and prosocial/moral behavior I: the role of individual processes. J Early Adolesc. 1999;19(1):5–16.
Boudreault-Bouchard A-M, Dion J, Hains J, Vandermeerschen J, Laberge L, Perron M. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents’ self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study. J Adolesc. 2013;36(4):695–704.
Kokkinos CM, Hatzinikolaou S. Individual and contextual parameters associated with adolescents’ domain specific self-perceptions. J Adolesc. 2011;34(2):349–60.
Siyez DM. Adolescent self-esteem, problem behaviors, and perceived social support in Turkey. Soc Behav Personal Int J. 2008;36(7):973–84.
Gaylord-Harden NK, Ragsdale BL, Mandara J, Richards MH, Petersen AC. Perceived support and internalizing symptoms in African American adolescents: self-esteem and ethnic identity as mediators. J Youth Adolesc. 2007;36(1):77–88.
Botticello A. A multilevel analysis of gender differences in psychological distress over time. J Res Adolesc. 2009;19:217–47.
Bokhorst C, Sumter S, Westenberg P. Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: who is perceived as most supportive? Soc Dev. 2010;19:417–42.
Cheng ST, Chan A. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support: dimensionality and age and gender differences in adolescents. Pers Individ Dif. 2004;37:1359–69.
Rueger SY, Malecki CK, Demaray MK. Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. Sch Psychol Q. 2008;23:496–514.
Colarossi LG. Adolescent gender differences in social support: structure, function, and provider type. Soc Work Res. 2001;25(4):233–41.
Tam CL, Lee TH, Har WM, Pook WL. Perceived social support and self-esteem towards gender roles: contributing factors in adolescents. Asian Soc Sci. 2011;7(8):49–58.
Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Pers Assess. 1988;52(1):30–41.
Rosenberg M. Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.
Goldberg D, Williams P. A user’s guide to the general health questionnaire. NFER-Nelson: Windsor, UK; 1988.
Smith AB, Fallowfield LJ, Stark DP, Velikova G, Jenkins V. A Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the general health questionnaire (GHQ)-12. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010;8:45.
Kashyap GC, Singh SK. Reliability and validity of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) for male tannery workers: a study carried out in Kanpur, India. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):102.
Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986;51:1173–82.
Hayes AF. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2017.
Budd A, Buschman C, Esch L. The correlation of self-esteem and perceived social support. Undergrad Res J Hum Sci. 2009;8:1–4.
Tahir WB, Inam A, Raana T. Relationship between social support and self esteem of adolescent girls. IOSR-JHSS. 2015;20(2):42–6.
Bhat SA. The relationship of perceived social support with self-esteem among college-going students. IJARD. 2017;2(3):308–10.
Yildiz MA. Multiple mediation of self-esteem and perceived social support in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. J Educ Pract. 2017;8(3):130–9.
Mahanta D, Aggarwal M. Effect of perceived social support on life satisfaction of university students. Eur Acad Res. 2013;1(6):1083–94.
Gülaçti F. The effect of perceived social support on subjective well-being. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2010;2:3844–9.
Trzesniewski KH, Donnellan MB, Moffitt TE, Robins RW, Poulton R, Caspi A. Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2006;42(2):381–90.
Yarcheski A, Mahon NE, Yarcheski TJ. Social support and wellbeing in early adolescents: the role of mediating variables. Clin Nurs Res. 2001;10:163–81.
Kong F, You X. Loneliness and self-esteem as mediators between social support and life satisfaction in late adolescence. Soc Indic Res. 2013;110(1):271–9.
Kong F, Zhao J, You X. Self-esteem as mediator and moderator of the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Soc Indic Res. 2013;112(1):151–61.
Karatzias A, Chouliara Z, Power K, Swanson V. Predicting general well-being from self-esteem and affectivity: an exploratory study with Scottish adolescents. Qual Life Res. 2006;15:1143–51.
Sharaf AY, Thompson EA, Walsh E. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2009;22:160–8.
Wilburn VR, Smith DE. Stress, self-esteem, and suicide ideation in late adolescents. Adolescence. 2005;40:33–45.
Kugbey N, Osei-Boadi S, Atefoe EA. The influence of social support on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among students in Ghana. J Educ Pract. 2015;6(25):135–40.
DuBois DL, Burk-Braxton C, Swenson LP, Tevendale HD, Lockerd EM, Moran BL. Getting by with a little help from self and others: self-esteem and social support as resources during early adolescence. Dev Psychol. 2002;38(5):822.
Ji Y, Rana C, Shi C, Zhong Y. Self-esteem mediates the relationships between social support, subjective well-being, and perceived discrimination in Chinese people with physical disability. Front Psychol. 2019;10:2230.
Birndorf S, Ryan S, Auinger P, Aten M. High self-esteem among adolescents: longitudinal trends, sex differences, and protective factors. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37(3):194–201.
Glozah FN. Effects of academic stress and perceived social support on the psychological wellbeing of adolescents in Ghana. Open J Med Psychol. 2013;2(4):143–50.
Furman W, Buhrmester D. Age and sex in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Dev. 1992;63:103–15.
Helsen M, Vollebergh W, Meeus W. Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 2000;29:319–35.
Santos HC, Varnum ME, Grossmann I. Global increases in individualism. Psychol Sci. 2017;28(9):1228–39.
Ministry of Health Nepal, New ERA, ICF. 2016 Nepal demographic and health survey key findings. Kathmandu: Ministry of Health Nepal; 2017.