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Table 3 Results of the post-hoc paired t-tests and percentages of changes between measurements

From: Sad but true? - How induced emotional states differentially bias self-rated Big Five personality traits

Big five factor Induced emotion Post hoc paired t-Tests Differences1
   df t SE p d d’s 95%CI n > e e > n
Neuroticism Sadness 52 4.12 0.92 < 0.01** 0.34 0.18-0.50 32% 66%
Hapiness 44 -0.55 0.97 0.59   -0.19-0.11 47% 47%
Extraversion Sadness 52 -2.16 0.63 < 0.05* 0.13 0.01-0.26 60% 30%
Hapiness 44 1.48 0.95 0.15   -0.06-0.36 33% 56%
Agreeableness Sadness 52 -2.01 0.58 0.05* 0.14 0.00-0.33 60% 36%
Hapiness 44 0.52 0.73 0.61   -0.12-0.20 36% 51%
  1. Note. Bold data indicate significant differences at α = .05; * = p < .05; ** = p < .01; df = degrees of freedom; t = t-Value; SE = standard error of the mean, p = p-Value, d = Cohens d; d’s 95% CI = 95% confidence interval for the effect size d; n = neutral condition; e = emotion condition.
  2. 1Percentage of participants with increased vs. decreased personality scores during treatment.