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Table 3 Factor arrays for the five factors

From: College students’ attachment to their smartphones: a subjective operant approach

Statement F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
S29. My smartphone holds lots of my personal secrets. I would feel very uncomfortable if somebody looked inside my phone + 5 + 1 0 + 5 + 1
S20. I am used to smartphone browsing prior to going to bed. If I don’t do this, I have a hard time getting to sleep + 5** − 1  + 1 − 1 0
S40. I feel safe when I have my smartphone with me. It will help me at times of emergency + 4 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3
S14. I habitually check my smartphone once every few minutes. If I don’t check the phone for an extended period of time, I feel like I am missing something important + 4** 0 0 0 − 2
S10. My smartphone is my wallet, my notebook, and my backpack—I need it to make payment, take notes, and record important information + 4 + 4 + 4 + 5 + 5
S45. When I get onto my smartphone, I often don’t realize how quickly time goes by + 3 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 1
S2. My smartphone is my main tool of entertainment. I use it to watch videos, read books, and enjoy music + 3 + 5 + 5 + 2 + 5
9. Whenever I have free time, I get onto my smartphone to kill the time + 3 + 2 + 4* + 1 + 3
47. After having studied hard or having worked hard at something, it is a great joy to get onto my smartphone for casual browsing + 3 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 2
17. I feel embarrassed when people sit together and everyone is busy checking their smartphones, without anyone talking to each other + 2 + 3 + 1* − 1* + 3
24. If I leave my phone behind, I will feel uneasy, and must go back to get my phone before I can continue with the rest of the day + 2 0 − 3 − 2 + 3
33. When I buy a new smartphone, I mainly consider best value for the money and practical features. I won’t buy a pricey phone if there is a cheaper replacement available + 2 + 4 + 2 + 4 + 1
12. I often regret the excessive amount of time I spend on my smartphone, which is interfering with my routine study and daily life + 2** + 5** 0 0 0
48. I am used to casual browsing on my smartphone, just dawdling away my time for no particular purpose + 2 + 1 + 5** − 2** + 1*
11. I have this hate-and-love feeling about my smartphone, because I cannot resist its temptation, and sometimes do things that I regret + 2* + 3* − 2 0 0
50. My smartphone is my reliable helper when I have questions in my life and study + 1 + 2 + 4 + 1 + 4
23. I put my smartphone within easy reach. If it falls out of my sight, I will feel uneasy + 1 − 2** -5** + 1 + 2
1. My smartphone is like my housekeeper and aide. It helps me coordinate and track everyday things + 1 + 1 + 3 + 3 + 4
25. I keep my power bank with me all time. Otherwise my phone would run out of battery before day’s end + 1 − 3* − 1 0 − 1
26. If I lost my smartphone, it would be disastrous. I would try everything possible to get it back before I could do anything else + 1 − 2 − 2 0 + 2
16. When having a face-to-face conversation, I am offended if the other party checks the phone while listening to me talk + 1 + 3 + 1 0 + 4
46. My smartphone gives me a platform to present myself. I use it to record important occasions in my daily life, and publicize information among my network of friends 0* + 1 + 2 + 4 + 2
32. It is important for me to personalize my apps and the smartphone screen, because I consider my smartphone part of myself 0 + 1 − 3** + 2 + 1
43. I often get to the end of my bandwidth allowance, and sometimes I use up all the bandwidth at the end of the month 0 − 2* + 2* 0 − 4*
22. I am used to checking my smartphone while waking up in the middle of the night 0** − 3 − 3 − 3 − 3
8. My smartphone is like my personal agent. It takes care of my daily routines; without it, I would not know what to do 0 − 4* + 1 − 1 + 2**
27. If the teacher asks me to turn in my smartphone in class, I cannot help but think of my phone from time to time in class 0 − 1 − 1 − 1 − 1
44. I look upon my smartphone as my pal, who understands me well and keeps me company all the time 0 − 1* + 2** − 5** 0
28. The smartphone is merely a tool for me. Even if I don’t have it, I believe I can still complete my daily study and living tasks 0 + 2 + 3* + 1 0
30. I am versed in knowing the features and using most of the apps on my smartphone − 1 0** − 1 + 3** − 2
15. With the smartphone on my side, I often have difficulty concentrating on the lectures or doing what the teacher asks me to do in class − 1* 0** − 4 − 2 − 2
6. My smartphone is like my right-hand pal. I cannot accomplish anything without its help − 1 − 5 − 3 − 4 0
49. After having spent so much time with my smartphone, I sometimes feel I am further distanced from my friends and the outside world − 1* + 1** − 4 − 4 − 2
42. I often make an effort in reducing the amount of time I spend on my smartphone so as to reduce my dependency on it and minimize its interference with my daily life − 1 + 2 − 1 + 2 − 1
41. Every time I buy a new phone, I feel emotional to part ways with my old phone − 1 0 + 2 0 0
7. I consider my smartphone a part of my extended family that promotes mutual understanding among family members − 2 − 3** + 1 − 1 + 2*
21. I feel that the use of smartphone has reduced the daily communication between me and my friends − 2 + 3** − 2 − 4 − 2
4. My smartphone is like a naughty sister/brother: it is lovely when it behaves, but it can be disappointing and annoying at times when it does not behave − 2 − 1 + 1 − 2 0
5. My smartphone is like my pet—it knows how to please me, and it knows how to not upset me − 2 − 4 0* − 2 − 1
18. Everything I do now depends on the smartphone. I feel hard to communicate with people without the smartphone − 2 − 2 − 4 − 3 − 1
31. My smartphone is like my twin sister/brother. I share everything with him/her, and she/he knows everything about me − 2 − 3 − 1 − 2 − 2
3. I regard my smartphone as my slave/servant. It listens to me and does what I ask it to do − 3 − 5 0** − 3 − 3
19. My smartphone is just a tool for me in communicating with others. Except voice calls and WeChat messages, I rarely use other apps and features − 3 − 2 − 2 − 5 − 5
35. I often search for new apps and study their new features, and try them out to see how it works − 3 0 0 + 2** -3
38. I know more about smartphone technologies and apps than most of my fellow students − 3 0 0 + 2** − 3
34. I pay attention to the latest developments with apps, and want to be among the first in installing updates − 4 − 1* 0* + 4** − 4
37. I pay attention to the newest smartphone releases, and want to know the latest technical features and applications − 4 − 1 − 2 + 2** − 4
13. I maintain a good level of self-control, and typically complete the tasks I have planned for the day by not spending an excessive amount of time on smartphone use − 4** 0 − 1 − 1 − 1
36. I value the brand of the smartphone I use, and want to get the best phone I can afford − 5 − 2 − 5 − 3 + 1**
39. Whenever a new generation of the smartphone is released, I try to upgrade to the latest phone if possible − 5* − 4 − 2* + 1** − 5
  1. Underlined items are consensus items among all five factors
  2. *Distinguishing items, significant at p < 0.05
  3. **Distinguishing items, significant at p < 0.01