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Table 2 Participant demographics and psychological characteristics in baseline

From: Effectiveness and mechanism of a 4-week online self-help mindfulness intervention among individuals with emotional distress during COVID-19 in China

  Mindfulness (n = 302) Wait list (n = 315) t/χ2` p
Wave 1 (n = 120) Wave 2 (n = 182) t/χ2 p Total N(%)/Mean(SD)
N(%)/Mean(SD) N(%)/Mean(SD)
Sex    0.900 0.343    0.803 0.370
 Male 21 (17.5) 40 (22)    61 (20.2) 73 (23.2)   
 Female 99 (82.5) 142 (78)    241 (79.8) 242 (76.8)   
COVID-2019 related    3.713 0.054    66.403 0.000
 Yes 67 (55.8) 81 (44.5)    148 (49) 57 (18.1)   
 No 53 (44.2) 101 (55.5)    154 (51) 258 (81.9)   
Age 32.08 (9.27) 30.53 (8.52) 1.499 0.135 31.15 (8.84) 31.90 (10.10)  − 0.979 0.328
K10 28.80 (6.31) 26.81 (6.16) 2.688 0.008 27.62 (6.29) 27.60 (6.85) 0.030 0.976
CPSS 33.44 (6.91) 32.75 (7.15) 0.815 0.416 33.03 (7.05) 32.95 (6.86) 0.141 0.888
OASIS 9.60 (3.67) 8.46 (3.55) 2.653 0.008 8.92 (3.63) 8.68 (3.54) 0.838 0.403
ODSIS 7.08 (4.34) 5.55 (3.92) 3.158 0.002 6.17 (4.15) 6.18 (4.46)  − 0.034 0.973
FFMQtotal 57.65 (7.46) 57.87 (8.08) 0.407 0.812 57.78 (7.82) 58.19 (8.08)  − 0.628 0.530
FFMQobs 12.13 (3.07) 12.35 (3.14)  − 0.617 0.538 12.26 (3.11) 12.54 (3.45)  − 1.032 0.302
FFMQdes 11.73 (2.64) 11.46 (2.95) 0.798 0.426 11.57 (2.83) 11.72 (2.97)  − 0.619 0.536
FFMQact 11.45 (2.77) 11.53 (2.83)  − 0.233 0.816 11.50 (2.80) 11.34 (3.28) 0.636 0.525
FFMQnj 11.94 (2.71) 12.31 (2.58)  − 1.174 0.241 12.16 (2.63) 11.97 (2.71) 0.839 0.402
FFMQnrt 10.40 (2.52) 9.94 (1.65) 1.859 0.064 10.13 (2.06) 10.62 (2.39)  − 2.678 0.008
  1. CPSS Chinese Perceived Stress Scale, K10 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, OASIS Overall Anxiety Severity And Impairment Scale, ODSIS Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale, FFMQtotal total score of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQobs observe subscale of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQdes describe subscale of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQact act with awareness subscale of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQnj nonjudge subscale of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQnrt nonreact subscale of Short Form of Chinese Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire