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Table 3 Mixed-effect Tobit regression (outcome: CES-D of caregiver)

From: The associations between caregivers’ psychosocial characteristics and caregivers’ depressive symptoms in stroke settings: a cohort study

   Unadjusted model Adjusted model
Partial regression coefficient (95% CI) P value Partial regression coefficient (95% CI) P value
Variable related to caregivers      
Subjective burden (ZBI)   0.27 (0.21 to 0.33)  < 0.001 0.18 (0.11 to 0.24)  < 0.001
Quality of care-relationship   − 0.61 (− 0.91 to − 0.31)  < 0.001 − 0.35 (− 0.63 to − 0.06) 0.017
Expressive social support   − 0.39 (− 0.50 to − 0.29)  < 0.001 − 0.28 (− 0.37 to − 0.19)  < 0.001
Objective burden (OCBS)   0.07 (0.04 to 0.11)  < 0.001 0.00 (− 0.03 to 0.03) 0.930
Number of health conditions No health condition (reference)     
  1 or more health condition 1.65 (0.47 to 2.84) 0.006 0.79 (− 0.24 to 1.82) 0.132
Age   0.02 (− 0.02 to 0.07) 0.326   
Gender Male (reference)     
  Female 0.90 (− 0.39 to 2.19) 0.172 0.36 (− 0.79 to 1.50) 0.542
Ethnicity Chinese (reference)     
  Malay − 1.72 (− 2.96 to − 0.47) 0.007 0.23 (− 0.76 to 1.22) 0.652
  Indian 0.49 (− 1.58 to 2.55) 0.644 1.83 (0.21 to 3.44) 0.026
  Others 1.93 (− 1.60 to 5.45) 0.285 3.00 (0.60 to 5.40) 0.014
Educational qualification No qualification (Reference)     
  Primary − 1.62 (− 4.62 to 1.39) 0.292   
  Secondary − 1.70 (−  4.60 to 1.19) 0.249   
  Post-secondary/polytechnic − 3.00 (− 6.01 to 0.01) 0.050   
  University − 2.57 (− 6.14 to 1.00) 0.158   
Employment status Employed full time (reference)     
  Employed part time 1.31 (− 0.73 to 3.35) 0.207   
  Unemployed 0.73 (− 0.50 to 1.95) 0.245   
Relationship with patient Spousal (reference)     
  Children − 0.37 (− 1.62 to 0.87) 0.555 0.76 (− 0.34 to 1.86) 0.174
  Others − 0.04 (− 2.04 to 1.95) 0.966 − 0.74 (− 2.40 to 0.92) 0.381
Time period 3rd month (reference)     
  1st year − 1.44 (− 2.28 to − 0.60) 0.001 − 1.00 (− 1.80 to − 0.20) 0.014
Variable related to patient
 Age   0.03 (− 0.02 to 0.09) 0.183 0.02 (− 0.03 to 0.06) 0.422
Gender Male (reference)     
  Female − 0.73 (− 1.93 to 0.46) 0.228 − 0.64 (− 1.78 to 0.51) 0.275
 Ethnicitya Chinese (reference)     
  Malay − 1.49 (− 2.75 to − 0.22) 0.021   
  Indian 0.05 (− 1.92 to 2.02) 0.959   
  Others 2.00 (− 1.83 to 5.83) 0.307   
 CES-D   0.33 (0.25 to 0.40)  < 0.001 0.16 (0.09 to 0.23)  < 0.001
  1. p < 0.05 are indicated in bold
  2. CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; CI, confidence interval; OCBS, Oberst Caregiving Burden Score; ZBI, Zarit burden interview
  3. aOverall was not significant, hence was not included in the adjusted model