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Table 3 Results of analysis on quantitative data, descriptive statistics, mean comparisons, and internal consistency

From: Multi-level barriers and facilitators to implementing a parenting intervention in prison, perceptions from deliverers and responsible managers: a mixed-methods study

CFIR domain
Construct
# item
Mean (SD) Cronbach’s Alpha
Per intervention/control group Total
GL CI GL CI
I n = 15 C n = 8 I n = 7 C n = 5 n = 23 n = 12
Domain: intervention characteristics        
 Construct: Intervention Source 3.8 (1.57) NR 4.43 (0.54) NR NA NA NA
1. I have been involved in the decision that FOCS is to be carried out in my prisona        
 Construct: Relative advantage 5.0 (0.0) 5.0 (0.0) 4.86 (0.38) NR NA NA NA
2. Working with FOCS has more advantages than disadvantagesa        
Domain: Outer setting        
 Construct: Patient needs and resources 5.0 (0.0) 4.88 (0.35) 5.0 (0.0) 4.8 (0.45) 4.96 (0.21) 4.92 (0.29) NA
3. There is a need to work with parenting/children's issues at the prisona        
Domain: Inner setting/the organisation,        
 Construct: Readiness for implementation—Leadership engagement 3.93 (0.61) 3.29 (1.1) NR NR NA NA 0.861c
4. The prison management supports the implementation of FOCS in an prison in a clear and visible waya        
5. The prison management ensures that we have the time and space we need to discuss changes that can improve the work of the prisona        
6. The prison management supports change initiatives at the prisona        
 Construct: Culture 3.70 (1.01) 4.19 (0.7) 4.79 (0.27) 4.6 (0.42) 3.87 (0.93)* 4.71 (0.33)* 0.8d
7. The staff at the prison where I work always want to do their best in their worka        
8. Most of the staff at the prison where I work are receptive to changing their way of working based on feedback they receivea        
 Construct: Readiness for implementation—available resources 3.08 (0.87) 2.74 (0.66) 3.2 (1.05) 3.3 (0.82) 2.96 (0.81) 3.24 (0.92) 0.84d
9. In general, when there is a clear consensus at the various stages of the SPPS that change is necessary in the prison, we receive the necessary support from the SPPS management in the form of financial resourcesa        
10. In general, when there is a clear consensus at the various stages of the SPPS that change is necessary in the prison, we receive the necessary support from the SPPS management in the form of traininga        
11. In general, when there is a clear consensus at the various stages of the SPPS that change is necessary in the prison, we receive the necessary support from the SPPS management in the form of human resourcesa        
12. I am too burdened and stressed to be able to do my work effectivelya        
13. The workload in the prison adversely affects the implementation of FOCSa        
Domain: Characteristics of individuals/deliverers        
 Construct: Individual Stage of Change 4.67 (0.62) 5.0 (0.0) NR NR NA NA NA
14. I am enthusiastic about working with FOCSa        
 Construct: Knowledge and Beliefs about the Intervention 9.27 (1.03) 9.75 (0.46) 9.8 (0.45) 8.8 (1.3) 9.43 (0.9) 9.3 (1.06) NA
15. How important it is for you to work with parenting and children's issues at the prison/within the SPPS?b        
 Construct: Self-efficacy 8.93 (1.91) 8.75 (1.67) NR NR NA NA NA
16. How strong is your confidence in your ability to carry out parenting groups with inmates?b        
  1. NR, not reported, i.e. the item was not included in the questionnaire to the specific sub-group of GLs/Cis; NA, not applicable (Means: no comparisons between total of groups can be made as CI responses are lacking. Cronbach’s alpha: one item only does not allow for calculation of Cronbach’s alpha)
  2. *Significant difference between GLs and CIs at p < 0.05
  3. aResponse scale 1–5
  4. bResponse scale 0–10
  5. cCronbach’s alpha reported for the total of subgroup of GLs/CIs for whom the items were included in the questionnaires as Cis
  6. dCronbach’s alpha reported for the total group of GLs and CIs