Skip to main content

Table 2 Hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting the five outcome variables from motivational factors and mindfulness

From: Benefits of mindfulness in academic settings: trait mindfulness has incremental validity over motivational factors in predicting academic affect, cognition, and behavior

Predictor variables Outcome variables
Test anxiety
(N = 161)
Enjoyment
(N = 160)
Lack of study strategies
(N = 161)
Mind-wandering
(N = 159)
Help-seeking avoidance
(N = 160)
ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β
Step 1 .00   .00   .03*   .00   .00  
Sex   .02   .01   .17*   .01   .01
Step 2 .16**   .52**   .24**   .15**   .18**  
Sex   .01   − .01   .11   − .01   .01
Competence perception   − .09   .01   − .30**   − .23**   − .08
Implicit theory of intelligence   .12   .00   − .12   .10   .05
Mastery-approach goals   .04   .08   .07   − .15   .00
Mastery-avoidance goals   .02   .09   − .04   .09   − .06
Performance-approach goals   − .11   − .10   − .08   .07   − .06
Performance-avoidance goals   .33**   .00   .06   .01   .11
Autonomous academic reasons   .06   .68**   − .27**   − .20*   − .35**
Controlled academic reasons   .11   .03   .27**   .00   .13
Step 3 .07*   .04*   .02   .26**   .11**  
Sex   .00   − .07   .09   − .02   − .01
Competence perception   .02   − .02   − .26**   − .03   .04
Implicit theory of intelligence   .04   .05   − .13   − .04   − .06
Mastery-approach goals   .07   .05   .08   − .10   .03
Mastery-avoidance goals   − .01   .13   − .07   .00   − .08
Performance-approach goals   − .15   − .07   − .10   .00   − .13
Performance-avoidance goals   .33**   .00   .06   − .01   .13
Autonomous academic reasons   .10   .66**   − .27**   − .13   − .32**
Controlled academic reasons   .10   .02   .26**   .01   .09
Mindfulness: observing   − .01   .12   .12   .08   .01
Mindfulness: describing   − .11   − .10   − .08   − .10   − .29**
Mindfulness: acting-with-awareness   − .21*   .13*   .01   − .44**   − .14
Mindfulness: nonreactivity   − .07   − .07   − .02   − .14*   .06
Mindfulness: nonjudging   − .04   .17**   − .05   − .09   − .09
  1. p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01 (two-tailed tests). ΔR2 = increment in R2. Sex was coded as 0 for males and 1 for females. N ranges from 159 to 161 due to missing data (response rate = 89% to 90%)