Skip to main content

Table 4 Factors associated with psychological distress among healthcare workers in tertiary referral hospitals during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, Uganda, April–May 2020 (N = 328)

From: Risk perception and psychological state of healthcare workers in referral hospitals during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, Uganda

Characteristic Psychological distress Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis**
Distressed (n = 144),
n (%)
No distress (n = 184), n (%) PR (95% CI) P value Adjusted PR (95% CI) P value
Level of concern/risk perception    
Low 13 (9.0) 59 (32) Ref   Ref  
Moderate 72 (50) 103 (56) 2.3 (1.3–4.1) 0.006 2.2 (1.2–4.0) 0.010
High 59 (41) 22 (12) 4.0 (2.2–7.4)  < 0.001 3.8 (2.0–7.0)  < 0.001
Age category      
≤ 35 years 73 (51) 101 (55) Ref    
> 35 years 71 (49) 83 (45) 1.1 (0.79–1.5) 0.571   
Sex       
Male 67 (47) 105 (57) Ref   Ref  
Female 77 (53) 79 (43) 1.3 (0.98–1.8) 0.156 1.2 (0.84–1.7) 0.322
Category of HCW by patient contact    
Direct contact 110 (76) 132 (72) Ref    
Indirect contact 34 (24) 52 (28) 0.87 (0.60–1.3) 0.477   
Years of experience      
 < 5 years 46 (32) 78 (42) Ref   Ref  
5–10 years 43 (30) 46 (25) 1.3 (0.86–2.0) 0.213 1.3 (0.84–1.9) 0.253
 > 10 years 55 (38) 60 (33) 1.3 (0.87–1.9) 0.204 1.1 (0.79–1.6) 0.778
Hours worked per week     
 ≤ 40 h 58 (40) 62 (34) Ref    
 > 40 h 86 (60) 122 (66) 0.86 (0.61–1.2) 0.358   
Number of children      
None 45 (31) 58 (32) Ref    
One or more 99 (69) 126 (69) 1.0 (0.71–1.4) 0.969   
Provided direct care for suspected COVID-19 case*  
No 71 (49) 71 (39) Ref    
Yes 73 (51) 113 (61) 0.78 (0.57–1.1) 0.146   
Provided direct care for confirmed COVID-19 case  
No 91 (63) 86 (47) Ref   Ref  
Yes 53 (37) 98 (53) 0.68 (0.49–0.96) 0.027 0.87 (0.61–1.2) 0.430
  1. Ref reference category, CI confidence interval, PR prevalence ratio, HCW healthcare worker
  2. *Excluded from multivariable model due to collinearity with provision of direct care to confirmed case
  3. **Adjusted for sex, years of professional experience, and providing direct care to a confirmed COVID-19 case