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Table 2 Distribution of Temperament and character scores in case and control groups

From: Temperament and character traits in substance use disorder in Iran: a case control study

  Control (n = 70) Case (n = 70) P-value*
Mean ± SD Median (min–max) Mean ± SD Median (min–max)
HA 90.6 ± 9.3 88 (70–117) 90.9 ± 13.8 92 (59–129) 0.637
NS 96.4 ± 9.2 95.5 (84–122) 101.9 ± 11.7 103 (76–128) 0.002
RD 181.1 ± 8.2 180 (165–210) 99.8 ± 10.2 98.5 (73–127) < 0.001
PS 108.8 ± 15.5 106.5 (78–152) 121.4 ± 12.0 122 (97–156) < 0.001
SD 107.1 ± 9.6 106 (83–137) 124.1 ± 18.7 123 (80–164) < 0.001
CO 101.6 ± 8.2 101 (84–119) 125.6 ± 11.9 124.5 (103–154) < 0.001
ST 77.3 ± 10.9 77 (47–104) 90.5 ± 10.2 90 (72–111) < 0.001
TCI-R 664.7 ± 58.2 662.5 (536–824) 754.3 ± 30.8 751 (696–840) < 0.001
  1. TCI-R, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised; HA, Harm Avoidance; NS, Novel Seeking; RD, Reward dependence; PS, Persistence; SD, Self-directedness; CO, cooperativeness; ST, Self-transcendence
  2. *Based on Mann–Whitney test