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Table 5 DIF statistics across men and women

From: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS-2): measurement invariance across genders and item response theory examination

Item number Total χ2 df p χ2a df p χ2cja df p
1 14.2 5 0.0142 0.0 1 0.8646 14.2 4 0.0067
2 5.8 5 0.3257 0.9 1 0.3382 4.9 4 0.2992
3 8.0 5 0.1542 5.1 1 0.0238 2.9 4 0.5711
4 3.5 5 0.6186 2.3 1 0.1316 1.3 4 0.8697
5 4.1 5 0.5407 1.2 1 0.2771 2.9 4 0.5785
6 2.9 5 0.7237 1.4 1 0.2439 1.5 4 0.8292
7 2.2 5 0.8201 0.3 1 0.5763 1.9 4 0.7555
8 3.6 5 0.6019 2.1 1 0.1491 1.6 4 0.8167
9 11.7 5 0.0385 5.4 1 0.0201 6.3 4 0.1747
10 2.1 5 0.8314 1.3 1 0.2496 0.8 4 0.9387
Item number Total χ2 df p χ2a df p χ2cja df p
DIF statistics including only non-anchored items
1 13.2 5 0.0214 0.0 1 0.9721 13.2 4 0.0102
9 12.5 5 0.0285 6.0 1 0.0142 6.5 4 0.1656
Item number Group α β1 β2 β3 β4    
BAS-2 Graded Response Model IRT Properties for non-invariant items
1 Men 2.34  − 2.47  − 1.23  − 0.14 1.33    
1 Women 2.33  − 2.69  − 1.59  − 0.14 0.86    
9 Men 2.84  − 1.72  − 0.76 0.02 1.21    
9 Women 4.41  − 1.36  − 0.57 0.25 0.93    
  1. Bold values denote significance at .05 and are considered ‘non-anchored items’ in the table immediately below
  2. α defines the capacity of an item to discriminate between varying levels of body appreciation (θ).
  3. β represents the level of latent trait observed to endorse each item at a specific threshold.