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Table 3 Associations of psychosocial characteristics with coping styles

From: How have people been coping during the COVID-19 pandemic? Patterns and predictors of coping strategies amongst 26,016 UK adults

  Coping 1: Problem-focused Coping 2: Emotion-focused Coping 3: Avoidant Coping 4: Socially supported
Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P
Area                 
 Urban *     *     *     *    
 Rural 0.00 − 0.02 0.03 0.640 0.00 − 0.02 0.03 0.735 − 0.03 − 0.05 − 0.01 0.005 − 0.03 − 0.06 − 0.01 0.009
Overcrowding                 
 Living w/ others not crowded *     *     *     *    
 Alone 0.01 − 0.02 0.03 0.646 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.033 − 0.09 − 0.12 − 0.07 < 0.001 0.06 0.03 0.08 < 0.001
 Living w/ others overcrowded 0.03 0.00 0.07 0.041 0.05 0.00 0.09 0.039 0.04 0.01 0.08 0.021 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.024
Keyworker                 
 No *     *     *     *    
 Yes − 0.03 − 0.06 − 0.01 0.003 − 0.05 − 0.08 − 0.01 0.006 0.01 − 0.01 0.04 0.319 − 0.01 − 0.03 0.02 0.731
Diagnosed physical condition                 
 None *     *     *     *    
 Yes − 0.01 − 0.03 0.01 0.488 − 0.01 − 0.04 0.01 0.273 0.00 − 0.02 0.02 0.713 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.025
Diagnosed mental condition                 
 None *     *     *     *    
 Yes 0.00 − 0.03 0.02 0.809 0.02 − 0.01 0.06 0.209 0.10 0.08 0.13 < 0.001 0.08 0.05 0.11 < 0.001
Personality                 
 Neuroticism 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.951 0.02 0.02 0.02 < 0.001 0.03 0.03 0.03 < 0.001
 Extraversion 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001
 Openness 0.03 0.02 0.03 < 0.001 0.03 0.03 0.03 < 0.001 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.072 0.02 0.02 0.02 < 0.001
 Agreeableness 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.137 0.01 0.01 0.02 < 0.001 0.00 − 0.01 0.00 0.021 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.461
 Conscientiousness 0.01 0.01 0.02 < 0.001 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.914 − 0.01 − 0.01 0.00 < 0.001 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 < 0.001
Loneliness                 
 Average loneliness score 0.04 0.03 0.04 < 0.001 0.02 0.01 0.02 < 0.001 0.09 0.08 0.09 < 0.001 0.06 0.06 0.07 < 0.001
Social support                 
 Social support score 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.001 0.02 0.02 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.01 − 0.01 0.00 < 0.001 0.04 0.04 0.04 < 0.001
  1. Displays Model 2 predictors; star indicates reference group
  2. Fit statistics: problem focused: R2 = 0.118, AIC = 1.316; emotion-focused: R2 = 0.131, AIC = 1.829; avoidant: R2 = 0.200, AIC = 1.292; socially supported: R2 = 0.291, AIC = 1.708