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Table 2 Associations of sociodemographic factors with coping styles

From: How have people been coping during the COVID-19 pandemic? Patterns and predictors of coping strategies amongst 26,016 UK adults

  Coping 1: Problem-focused Coping 2: Emotion-focused Coping 3: Avoidant Coping 4: Socially supported
Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P Coef 95% CI P
Gender                 
 Male *     *     *     *    
 Female 0.10 0.09 0.12 < 0.001 0.21 0.18 0.23 < 0.001 0.08 0.06 0.11 < 0.001 0.27 0.25 0.30 < 0.001
Age group                 
 18–29 *     *     *     *    
 30–59 0.04 0.00 0.08 0.056 0.00 − 0.06 0.05 0.928 − 0.07 − 0.12 − 0.03 0.003 − 0.21 − 0.26 − 0.16 < 0.001
 60 +  0.03 − 0.02 0.07 0.295 0.02 − 0.04 0.08 0.551 − 0.18 − 0.23 − 0.12 < 0.001 − 0.32 − 0.38 − 0.26 < 0.001
Ethnicity                 
 White *     *     *     *    
 BAME 0.03 − 0.02 0.08 0.236 0.06 0.00 0.13 0.067 − 0.02 − 0.07 0.03 0.363 − 0.06 − 0.12 0.00 0.056
Education                 
 Highest qual/GCSE lower *     *     *     *    
 A levels or vocational training 0.06 0.04 0.09 < 0.001 0.10 0.06 0.14 < 0.001 − 0.01 − 0.04 0.02 0.374 0.09 0.05 0.12 < 0.001
 Undergraduate degree 0.13 0.11 0.16 < 0.001 0.17 0.13 0.20 < 0.001 − 0.02 − 0.05 0.00 0.067 0.22 0.19 0.26 < 0.001
 Postgraduate degree 0.21 0.18 0.24 < 0.001 0.21 0.18 0.25 < 0.001 − 0.04 − 0.07 − 0.01 0.004 0.35 0.32 0.38 < 0.001
Employment                 
 Employed *     *     *     *    
 Student 0.08 0.02 0.13 0.010 0.05 − 0.03 0.13 0.198 0.08 0.00 0.16 0.045 0.08 0.00 0.17 0.062
 Inactive − 0.05 − 0.08 − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.06 − 0.10 − 0.03 < 0.001 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.074 0.01 − 0.03 0.04 0.719
 Unemployed 0.07 − 0.01 0.14 0.068 − 0.03 − 0.12 0.05 0.434 0.01 − 0.07 0.09 0.762 − 0.06 − 0.13 0.02 0.154
Ownership                 
 Owned *     *     *     *    
 Rented/other 0.00 − 0.02 0.02 0.844 0.01 − 0.02 0.04 0.415 0.09 0.06 0.11 < 0.001 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.001
Low income                 
 No *     *     *     *    
 Yes − 0.01 − 0.03 0.01 0.464 − 0.05 − 0.08 − 0.02 0.001 0.05 0.02 0.07 < 0.001 − 0.07 − 0.10 − 0.04 < 0.001
  1. Displays Model 1 predictors; star indicates reference group
  2. Fit statistics: problem focused: R2 = 0.042, AIC = 1.397; emotion-focused: R2 = 0.046, AIC = 1.921; avoidant: R2 = 0.027, AIC = 1.487; socially supported: R2 = 0.104, AIC = 1.941