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Table 2 Percentage of older adults suffering from psychological distress and low SWB in India

From: Association of self-perceived income status with psychological distress and subjective well-being: a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

Background characteristics Psychological distress Low subjective well-being
(%) p < 0.05 (%) p < 0.05
Self-perceived income sufficiency   *   *
No income 27.1   30.8  
Has income and fully sufficient 13.5   15.6  
Has income and partially sufficient 23.0   26.6  
Has income and not sufficient 35.4   39.4  
Working status (last one year)   *   *
Never worked 27.1   30.4  
Currently working 19.4   23.5  
Retired 6.2   7.0  
Receiving pension   *   *
No 23.9   27.6  
Yes 22.3   24.6  
Asset ownership   *   *
No 31.1   36.5  
Yes 21.8   24.6  
Sex   *   *
Male 21.1   23.9  
Female 25.5   29.3  
Co-residing with children   *   *
No 24.6   29.9  
Yes 22.9   25.4  
Age group (in years)   *   *
60–69 19.9   23.2  
70–79 27.0   30.0  
80 +  34.9   38.7  
Educational status   *   *
No education 30.6   35.5  
Below 5 years 22.3   24.0  
6 to 10 years 12.5   13.9  
11 + years 8.4   10.3  
Marital status   *   *
Not in union 28.5   32.9  
Currently in union 20.1   22.7  
Decision making power   *   *
No role 50.3   55.9  
Partial role 28.5   33.0  
Absolute role 19.6   22.3  
Community involvement   *   *
No 34.5   40.2  
Yes 20.5   23.5  
Have someone to trust   *   *
No 37.4   42.8  
Yes 20.5   23.3  
Experienced economic violence   *   *
No 22.5   25.8  
Yes 42.0   45.0  
Chronic diseases   *   *
No 20.0   23.3  
Yes 25.3   28.6  
Caste   *   *
Scheduled Castes 28.0   33.8  
Scheduled Tribes 32.4   35.1  
Other Backward Classes 25.7   27.8  
Others 17.3   20.5  
Religion   *   *
Hindus 25.7   28.5  
Muslims 23.1   29.9  
Sikhs 7.8   12.1  
Others 16.3   21.6  
Household wealth status   *   *
Poorest 37.1   47.3  
Poorer 29.6   32.4  
Middle 19.7   21.1  
Richer 14.7   14.7  
Richest 9.2   9.3  
Place of residence   *   *
Rural 25.1   28.3  
Urban 18.7   22.4  
State   *   *
Himachal Pradesh 17.0   15.1  
Punjab 7.2   11.4  
West Bengal 29.3   48.3  
Odisha 37.5   35.3  
Maharashtra 22.7   34.3  
Kerala 13.8   14.8  
Tamil Nadu 36.2   31.7  
Total 23.4   26.7  
  1. *if p < 0.05 based on chi-square test