Skip to main content

Table 4 Demographic characteristics of eligible studies

From: The effects of meditation on individuals facing loneliness: a scoping review

Author and year Age Ethnicity Socioeconomic status Education
Brooker et al. 2020 [22] 38–85 Australian country of birth (n = 23)
Other (n = 4)
N/A Primary (n = 1)
Trade/vocational (n = 7)
Undergraduate tertiary (n = 6)
Postgraduate tertiary (n = 9)
Rodriguez-Romero et al. 2020 [23] > = 65 years Hispanic/Spanish Income
€ < 750/month (n = 1)
€750–1000/month (n = 22)
€1000–1500/month (n = 32)
Primary (n = 48)
Secondary (n = 6)
University (n = 1)
Lee et al. 2019 [24] 57–87 years East Asian (Korean) N/A N/A
Lindsay et al. 2019 [25] 18–70 years Hispanic or Latino (n = 7)
Not Hispanic or Latino (n = 146)
N/A GED (n = 3)
High School diploma (n = 20)
Technical training (n = 1)
Some college (n = 41)
Associate degree (n = 10)
Bachelor's degree (n = 48)
Master's degree (n = 26)
MD, PhD, JD, PharmD (n = 4)
Pandya 2019 [26] 62–68 South Asian Middle class (n = 147)
Upper class (n = 42)
College degree (n = 77)
Higher qualifications (n = 112)
Mascaro et al. 2018 [27] 22–30 years N/A N/A Second year medical school
Kok et al. 2017 [28] Adults (mean age 41.15) German—no other information provided N/A N/A
Tkatch et al. 2017 [29] Adults N/A N/A N/A
Dodds et al. 2015 [30] >  = 18 years White (n = 11)
Not White (n = 1)
 < $25,000 (n = 0)
$25,000-$49,999 (n = 3)
$50,000-$99,999 (n = 6)
 > $100,000 (n = 3)
High school diploma or less (n = 0)
Any college (n = 6)
Any graduate school (n = 6)
Samhkaniyan et al. 2015 [31] 20–45 years Iranian (Persian) N/A Minimum pre-high school diploma
Black et al. 2014 [32] 67.1 ± 7.2 Caucasian (65%) Mean 13.8 ± 4.0 Mean 16.9 years of education ± 2.9
Creswell et al. 2012 [9] 55–85 Caucasian (n = 13)
African American (n = 2)
Asian American (n = 2)
Latino(a) (n = 3)
Native American (n = 0)
Other (n = 0)
N/A High school diploma (n = 0)
Some college (n = 6)
College degree (n = 3)
Graduate work (n = 11)
Jazaieri et al. 2012 [33] Adults (mean 32.87 ± 8.83) Caucasian (n = 13)
Asian (n = 14)
Hispanic (n = 3)
Multiracial (n = 1)
N/A Mean 16.40 ± 2.00 years of education