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Table 2 Results from robust ANOVAs showing the effects of differences between countries (UK and Germany) and time points (before and during the pandemic) on a set of different variables

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a comparison between Germany and the UK

  Before pandemic During pandemic Robust ANOVA/M-estimator
UK GER UK GER Country Timepoint Country x Timepoint
Behaviour        
Sleep week 2.064 2.057 2.137 2.069 .005** .005** .005**
Sleep weekend 2.406 2.363 2.328 2.326 .145 .135 162
Exercise 2.841 2.464 2.974 2.553 .000*** .112 .816
Outside 3.889 3.877 3.568 3.798 .369 .164 .217
Mental well-being        
Happy/content 3.476 3.482 2.747 2.749 .952 .000*** .910
Concerned 2.225 2.276 2.871 3.101 .020* .000*** .112
Enjoy activities 3.648 3.862 2.635 3.021 .000*** .000*** .165
Relaxed 2.91 2.434 3.349 2.893 .000*** .000*** .783
Restless 1.953 1.885 2.316 2.200 .117 .000*** .678
Tired 2.573 2.624 2.773 2.782 .399 .003** .715
Focused 2.433 2.293 3.282 2.718 .000*** .000*** .005**
Irritated 2.021 2.365 2.517 2.715 .000*** .000*** .185
Lonely 1.639 1.725 2.202 2.298 .354 .000*** .356
Negative thoughts 2.650 2.550 2.944 2.939 .296 .000*** .329
Media consumption        
TV/digital media 2.798 2.813 3.262 3.095 .114 .114 .114
Social media 2.500 2.081 2.81 2.42 .000*** .018* .705
Video games 1.268 1.199 1.549 1.279 i i i
Print media 1.953 2.400 2.128 2.573 .000*** .000*** .276
Substance use        
Alcohol 4.288 3.941 4.361 4.16 .027* .467 .750
Tobacco 1.461 1.830 1.391 1.933 i i i
Marihuana 1.225 1.153 1.211 1.193 i i i
Opiate/Heroin 1.000 1.028 1.009 1.021 i i i
  1. *< .05; **< .01; ***< .001, i = could not be calculated due to insufficient dispersion or change