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Table 2 Features entering the machine learning algorithms and their respective characterization in all study samples

From: Machine learning-based ability to classify psychosis and early stages of disease through parenting and attachment-related variables is associated with social cognition

  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
PSY
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. PSY
p value
A. Discovery sample
PBI maternal care 25.14 ± 6.39 25.77 ± 5.81 23.82 ± 7.39 0.144
PBI maternal overprot 16.30 ± 7.54 15.21 ± 7.09 18.56 ± 8.03 0.033*
PBI paternal care 20.57 ± 7.79 20.28 ± 7.75 21.18 ± 7.94 0.583
PBI paternal overprot 14.97 ± 7.22 13.80 ± 7.06 17.35 ± 7.07 0.018*
ECR avoidance 46.59 ± 16.28 44.06 ± 16.64 51.88 ± 14.32 0.020*
ECR anxiety 65.61 ± 21.22 61.30 ± 20.11 74.62 ± 20.92 0.002*
  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
ESD
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. ESD
p value
B. Validation clinical sample
PBI maternal care 27.18 ± 6.49 28.67 ± 5.30 24.20 ± 7.63 0.002*
PBI maternal overprot 16.18 ± 6.65 15.32 ± 6.61 17.90 ± 6.49 0.082
PBI paternal care 22.76 ± 8.06 23.42 ± 7.68 21.43 ± 8.74 0.273
PBI paternal overprot 13.30 ± 7.09 13.35 ± 7.14 13.20 ± 7.11 0.925
ECR avoidance 44.37 ± 18.26 41.40 ± 17.59 50.30 ± 18.43 0.028*
ECR anxiety 66.17 ± 19.85 63.43 ± 19.58 71.63 ± 19.56 0.064
  All subjects (mean ± SD) HC
(mean ± SD)
FHR
(mean ± SD)
HC vs. FHR
p value
C. Validation familial risk sample
PBI maternal care 26.33 ± 6.71 25.65 ± 6.88 27.69 ± 6.41 0.368
PBI maternal overprot 15.44 ± 7.62 17.27 ± 7.01 11.77 ± 7.71 0.032*
PBI paternal care 23.69 ± 6.53 24.50 ± 6.17 22.08 ± 7.18 0.280
PBI paternal overprot 14.28 ± 8.17 15.35 ± 7.46 12.15 ± 9.39 0.255
ECR avoidance 45.21 ± 16.42 43.88 ± 14.12 47.85 ± 20.67 0.542
ECR anxiety 61.51 ± 17.81 61.96 ± 16.63 60.62 ± 20.65 0.827
  1. Significant between-groups differences (p < 0.05) are marked with (*)
  2. PBI = Parental Bonding Instrument; ECR = Experiences in Close Relationships; overprot = overprotection; HC = Healthy Controls; PSY = Patients with Psychosis; ESD = Early Stages of Disease; FHR = Familial High Risk; SD = standard deviation