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Table 4 Association between the sociodemographic variables and the psychological scales

From: Correlates of emotional intelligence among Lebanese adults: the role of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol use disorder, alexithymia and work fatigue

  AUDIT score TAS-20 score RSES HDRS HAM-A PSS LSAS Emotional work fatigue Physical work fatigue Mental work fatigue Suicidal ideation EAS EMS SEAS RMS
  M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD
Gender
 Male 12.13 ± 8.38 52.34 ± 10.84 24.58 ± 3.10 12.84 ± 10.56 14.67 ± 10.17 18.37 ± 5.96 39.74 ± 22.54 18.85 ± 10.94 15.96 ± 6.43 14.96 ± 8.75 0.71 ± 1.39 18.60 ± 7.49 19.27 ± 8.35 20.80 ± 8.54 20.48 ± 8.99
 Female 8.19 ± 7.48 52.02 ± 9.89 24.60 ± 2.68 12.36 ± 10.29 13.69 ± 9.96 18.71 ± 5.95 39.69 ± 23.35 16.82 ± 10.47 15.55 ± 6.69 16.97 ± 8.98 0.42 ± 1.02 19.62 ± 7.34 20.76 ± 8.32 23.00 ± 8.29 22.92 ± 8.39
 p-value < 0.001 0.675 0.903 0.536 0.178 0.426 0.974 0.014 0.42 0.003 0.001 0.061 0.015 < 0.001 < 0.001
Education level
 Illiterate 15.83 ± 10.57 54.91 ± 12.04 24.50 ± 2.02 17.25 ± 8.10 21.66 ± 9.91 18.58 ± 5.01 46.80 ± 11.64 21.50 ± 15.55 14.46 ± 5.57 12.90 ± 6.04 0.75 ± 1.54 14.33 ± 4.73 14.75 ± 5.95 17.83 ± 6.82 18.08 ± 6.59
 Primary 14.48 ± 8.12 54.35 ± 9.34 24.51 ± 2.31 15.13 ± 10.58 15.38 ± 8.59 19.05 ± 6.14 40.69 ± 16.81 17.08 ± 9.10 14.60 ± 6.11 10.31 ± 8.06 0.71 ± 1.27 16.97 ± 9.02 16.71 ± 8.01 17.76 ± 8.59 17.68 ± 8.56
 Complementary 13.01 ± 8.00 53.34 ± 10.04 25.09 ± 2.01 14.18 ± 10.66 16.76 ± 10.53 18.76 ± 6.18 44.89 ± 22.35 21.02 ± 11.95 16.19 ± 6.49 14.27 ± 8.76 0.62 ± 1.15 17.72 ± 7.21 17.64 ± 8.86 20.02 ± 9.06 18.56 ± 8.52
 Secondary 10.29 ± 8.26 52.14 ± 12.17 24.08 ± 3.67 13.42 ± 9.67 14.41 ± 10.23 18.74 ± 6.03 38.52 ± 22.87 19.17 ± 11.32 16.90 ± 6.69 17.21 ± 8.23 0.58 ± 1.27 19.43 ± 6.59 20.27 ± 8.02 22.01 ± 8.30 22.84 ± 8.41
 University 9.16 ± 7.48 51.79 ± 10.19 24.70 ± 2.67 11.41 ± 10.15 13.35 ± 10.09 18.35 ± 6.12 39.00 ± 24.19 17.23 ± 10.93 16.09 ± 6.64 16.15 ± 9.13 0.54 ± 1.26 19.16 ± 7.29 20.54 ± 8.35 22.32 ± 8.46 22.06 ± 8.81
 Higher education 10.51 ± 9.85 51.69 ± 10.95 24.32 ± 4.02 11.84 ± 11.30 13.53 ± 10.42 18.48 ± 5.03 39.49 ± 22.23 17.42 ± 7.36 17.91 ± 7.55 17.33 ± 8.87 0.44 ± 0.93 20.22 ± 8.11 19.76 ± 8.69 23.09 ± 8.65 22.22 ± 8.48
 p-value < 0.001 0.575 0.287 0.035 0.019 0.972 0.551 0.139 0.058 0.001 0.898 0.041 0.005 0.006 0.002
Socioeconomic status
 < 1000 $ 9.60 ± 7.82 53.48 ± 10.30 24.54 ± 2.89 11.58 ± 9.37 13.90 ± 9.99 18.82 ± 5.78 39.62 ± 22.70 17.76 ± 11.43 14.57 ± 6.03 15.60 ± 8.93 0.52 ± 1.20 19.54 ± 7.40 20.30 ± 8.35 22.30 ± 8.42 22.39 ± 8.67
 1000–2000 $ 11.13 ± 8.45 50.77 ± 10.64 24.67 ± 2.54 13.25 ± 11.08 13.96 ± 10.06 18.02 ± 6.17 41.18 ± 23.42 17.72 ± 10.25 15.79 ± 6.25 15.66 ± 8.95 0.58 ± 1.19 18.62 ± 7.18 19.39 ± 7.97 21.30 ± 8.44 20.64 ± 8.84
 > 2000 $ 11.83 ± 8.71 51.53 ± 10.65 24.68 ± 3.40 15.76 ± 12.19 15.90 ± 10.66 17.58 ± 5.66 40.30 ± 22.14 19.26 ± 10.44 16.15 ± 6.93 17.49 ± 8.56 0.83 ± 1.53 18.84 ± 8.13 20.57 ± 9.18 21.16 ± 8.32 21.39 ± 9.12
 p-value 0.012 0.005 0.812 0.001 0.182 0.085 0.728 0.432 0.108 0.15 0.096 0.29 0.316 0.252 0.051
Marital status
 Single 10.41 ± 8.23 52.83 ± 10.46 24.59 ± 2.93 12.51 ± 10.58 14.17 ± 10.13 18.88 ± 5.97 39.91 ± 23.70 17.98 ± 1.11 15.67 ± 6.66 15.55 ± 8.85 0.60 ± 1.26 18.98 ± 7.42 19.90 ± 8.33 21.84 ± 8.32 21.60 ± 8.73
 Married 10.27 ± 8.17 50.45 ± 10.19 24.51 ± 2.93 13.05 ± 10.34 14.22 ± 10.05 17.60 ± 5.70 39.24 ± 20.94 17.71 ± 9.87 15.89 ± 6.32 16.29 ± 9.05 0.55 ± 1.21 19.01 ± 7.60 19.82 ± 8.44 21.28 ± 8.97 21.24 ± 9.01
 p-value 0.83 0.003 0.725 0.517 0.949 0.006 0.726 0.759 0.689 0.309 0.582 0.951 0.898 0.401 0.609
  r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
Age (in years) 0.067 − 0.051 − 0.038 0.113 0.095 − 0.065 0.019 0.011 − 0.003 0.028 0.001 − 0.043 0.007 − 0.022 − 0.021
 p-value 0.064 0.161 0.288 0.002 0.008 0.075 0.629 0.772 0.94 0.461 0.97 0.241 0.859 0.545 0.568
  1. AUDIT The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, TAS Toronto Alexithymia Scale, RSES Rosenberg self-esteem scale, HDRS Hamilton depression rating scale, HAM-A Hamilton anxiety scale, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, LSAS Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, EAS emotional awareness scale, EMS emotional management scale, SEAS social emotional awareness scale, RMS relationship management scale, M mean, SD standard deviation; the Student t-test was used to compare the means of two groups (e.g. gender, marital status); the ANOVA test was used to compare the means of three or more groups (e.g. education level and socioeconomic status). r: Pearson correlation coefficient; the Pearson correlation test was used to correlate two continuous variables (e.g. age)
  2. Numbers in bold indicate significant p-values
  3. Post hoc analysis for education level: AUDIT score: university vs primary p = 0.001; university vs complementary p = 0.014
  4. HDRS: no significant associations for education level
  5. HAMA: no significant associations for education level
  6. Burnout depersonalization: secondary vs primary p = 0.001; university vs primary p = 0.003; higher education vs primary p = 0.003
  7. EAS: no significant associations for education level
  8. EMS: no significant associations for education level
  9. SEAS: university vs primary p = 0.023; higher education vs primary p = 0.034
  10. RMS: secondary vs primary p = 0.025; university vs primary p = 0.042
  11. Post hoc analysis for socioeconomic status: AUDIT score: low (< 1000$) vs high (> 2000$) p = 0.042
  12. TAS score: low vs intermediate (1000—2000$) p = 0.004
  13. HDRS: low vs high p = 0.001