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Table 2 Gender differences across the sports-participation dimensions and the parenting-behavior domain

From: Immigrant and Swedish adolescents’ involvement in organized sports activities: an expectancy-value approach

  Girls Boys    
Variable M/% (SD) M/% (SD) F/χ2 p η2/ Cramer's V
Parents’ employee status 1.74 (.55) 1.79 (.53) 1.53 .217 .00
Age 14.10 (.42) 14.09 (.36) .16 .69 .00
Immigrant background 52.4% 50.7% .13 .132 .02
Role modeling 1.57 (1.40) 1.49 (1.27) .466 .495 .00
Sports-related co-activities 2.16 (.97) 2.63 (1.17) 29.81 .001 .05
Youth’s attainment values T1 2.47 (1.04) 2.79 (1.13) 13.43 .001 .02
Youth’s attainment values T2 2.29 (1.00) 2.59 (1.01) 12.60 .001 .02
Participation in sports T1 57.1% 77.4% 29.06 .001 .22
Participation in sports T2 55.3% 67.8% 7.68 .01 .13
Sports intensity T1 8.57 (4.24) 9.61 (3.95) 6.39 .01 .02
Sports intensity T2 7.62 (5.19) 8.94 (5.11) 4.85 .05 .02
Continued sports participation 86.6% 88.3% .28 .596 .03
  1. Partial eta-square was used as an effect-size indicator but was only estimated for the continuous and interval measures
  2. Cramer's V effect sizes were estimated for the dichotomous variables (for which percentages rather than means and standard deviations are presented)