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Table 3 Construct Validity Assessment: Pearson’s Correlation of Selected Variables with Mean Hope Scores (N = 326)

From: The value of hope: development and validation of a contextual measure of hope among people living with HIV in urban Tanzania a mixed methods exploratory sequential study

Validation measuresBaseline24 Months follow up
Correlation with mean hopep-valueCorrelation with mean hopep-value
 General HIV knowledge0.281< 0.0010.422< 0.001
 Knowledge of ART medication0.1610.0030.544< 0.001
Mental health
 Depression PHQ9 scores(−)−0.299< 0.001− 0.3480.002
 Self- esteem (+)0.178< 0.0010.490< 0.001
 Stigma(s) (−)−0.2760.001−0.446< 0.001
 Social support(+)0.209< 0.0010.1010.023
Local scale of stress (msongo)−0.3980.004−0.310< 0.001
Local scale of depression (sonona)− 0.411< 0.001− 0.566< 0.001
Behavioral risk
 Adherence to ART (+)0.1100.0050.3380.006
 Attendance to clinic visits (+)0. 1310.0180.1760.040
Clinical outcomes
 CD4 (+)0.0350.5320.2240.092
 Hemoglobin (BHG)0.0610.2700.1880.160