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Tabel 3 The association between being bullied at age 15 or 18 and depressive symptoms at age 28, N = 1790

From: Is bullying in adolescence associated with the development of depressive symptoms in adulthood?: A longitudinal cohort study

  Crude estimates Adjusted estimatesa
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Bullied, age 15     
 Not bullied Ref   Ref  
 Bullied 1.5 1.2; 1.9 1.6 1.2; 2.0
 Often bullied 2.5 1.3; 4.6 1.8 0.9; 3.6
Bullied, age 18     
 Not bullied Ref   Ref  
 Bullied 2.0 1.4; 2.9 2.1 1.4; 3.0
Gender     
 Male Ref    
 Female 1.2 1.0; 1.4   
Close friends, age 15     
 Yes Ref    
 No 0.96 0.7; 1.3   
Family functioning, age 15     
 < 2 Ref    
 ≥ 2 1.6 1.3; 2.0   
Split home year 2003     
 Living with both parents Ref    
 Living with one parent 1.3 1.0; 1.6   
Parental educational level     
 < 10 years 1.1 0.7; 1.7   
 10–12 years 0.6 0.4; 0.9   
 12–15 years 0.7 0.5; 1.1   
 > 15 years Ref    
  1. aAdjusted for gender, close friends, family functioning, split home and parental educational level