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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of all variables used in Research questions 1 and 2

From: Urbanicity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and behavioral and emotional problems in children: a path analysis

 JOiNBIBO
M (SD) or F(%)RangeM (SD) or F(%)Range
Behavioral problems0.90 (0.76)0.00–3.390.91 (0.76)0.00–3.78
Emotional problems0.59 (0.51)0.00–2.960.42 (0.44)0.00–2.76
Urbanicity2.23 (1.36)0.00–4.001.44 (1.08)0.00–4.00
AUCi (nmol/l)342.34 (132.60)66.60–877.40213.23 (118.59)37.20–789.00
AUCg (nmol/l)7497.46 (2116.77)1359.90–15,945.004819.49 (1361.28)2518.25–10,801.13
Cortisol awakening response3.18 (6.36)−22.19-20.90
Decline8.84 (5.36)−10.80-33.7912.67 (5.03)−0.35-26.00
SES-Employment0.10 (0.95)−3.94-1.780.08 (0.92)−3.05-1.79
SES-Income−0.12 (0.83)−2.17-3.010.01 (0.89)−1.69-3.30
SES-Multi-ethnicity0.10 (0.90)−1.79-2.89
Family SES (low/average/high)10/21/69 0/14/86 
Age at PSP10.64 (1.40)7.92–12.926.04 (0.13)5.83–6.75
Sex (male/female)47/53 51/49 
Season (summer/winter)44/56 50/50 
Time687.86 (34.01)570.00–764.00
  1. Note. All cortisol measures are indicated in nmol/l. JOiN: n = 306 except pertaining to AUCi (n = 256), and AUCg, Cortisol awakening response and Decline (n = 282); BIBO: n = 141 except pertaining to AUCi (n = 135), and AUCg and Decline (n = 115). AUCi Area under the curve with respect to increase, AUCg Area under the curve with respect to ground, SES Socioeconomic status, PSP Psychosocial stress procedure, Time Time between basal cortisol 1 and basal cortisol 4