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Table 3 Factors associated with the participants’ psychological distress (GHQ Likert scores) 3 years into their professional work lives

From: The transition from university to work: what happens to mental health? A longitudinal study

Independent variablesTotal sample
(n = 773)
Healthcare
(n = 357)
Teachers
(n = 228)
Social workers
(n = 188)
Prior psychological distress
 GHQ Likert score as student0.15***0.18***0.18**0.08
 Explained variance6.2% ***8.1% ***8.9% ***1.8%
Sociodemographics
 Age0.030.10*−0.05− 0.01
 Gender−0.06− 0.08− 0.05− 0.09
 Civil status0.020.06−0.03− 0.01
R2 change0.7%1.8%0.8%1.7%
 Explained variance6.9% ***9.9% ***9.7% ***3.5%
Professional role
 Confidence0.000.19*−0.04−0.17
 Theoretical understanding−0.04− 0.01−0.160.04
 Methodical aspects0.080.02−0.020.25*
R2 change0.2%1.2%0.1%2.5%
 Explained variance7.1% ***11.1% ***9.8% **6.0%
Psychosocial work environment
 Demand0.14***0.12*0.110.18**
 Control−0.020.06−0.14*0.03
 Support−0.01−0.18*0.21*−0.03
R2 change4.6% ***5.2% ***6.7% **5.7% *
 Explained variance11.7% ***16.3% ***16.4% ***11.7% *
Quality of life
 Global quality of life−0.46 ***−0.45***−0.48***− 0.45 ***
R2 change18.8% ***17.6% ***19.2% ***18.5% ***
 Explained variance30.5% ***33.9% ***35.6% ***30.2% ***
 Durbin-Watson1.981.962.101.88
  1. Effect sizes are standardized β weights. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 Likert) is scored 0–36 with higher scores indicating more psychological distress; female = 1, male = 2; not married/partner = 1, married/partner = 2 (civil status); professional role variables are scored from 1 (not at all) to 5 (extremely); psychosocial work environment variables are scored as higher scores indicating higher levels of job demand, personal control, and experienced support; global quality of life is scored as higher scores indicating higher quality of life
  2. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05