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Table 2 Means, standard deviations (SDs), factor loadings, and Cronbach’s α coefficients for the total score and MHSQ-J factors (N = 243)

From: Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Mental Health Self-management Questionnaire among people with mental illness living in the community

Items of MHSQ-Ja (α = .83) and original factors with Cronbach's α coefficient Mean SD Factor loadingb Cronbach's α coefficient if the item was deleted
Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 For the total For the original factor
Clinical factor (α = .65) 10.4 3.9      
 1 I look for available resources to help me with my difficulties (websites, organizations, healthcare professionals, books, etc.). 1.7 1.3 .096 .032 .363 .83 .63
 2 I consult with a professional (a physician, psychologist, social worker, etc.) for my mental health problem. 2.2 1.2 -.039 .033 .745 .83 .54
 3 I get actively involved in my follow-up with the healthcare professionals I consult (physician, psychologist, social worker, etc.). 2.1 1.4 .028 .009 .722 .83 .51
 4 I participate in a support or help group in order to help me manage the difficulties I’m experiencing. 0.8 1.2 -.075 .222 .347 .83 .64
 5 I take medication for my mental health problem, following the indications of a healthcare professional. 3.6 0.9 .110 -.047 .379 .83 .65
Empowerment factor (α = .81) 20.6 7.3      
 6 I try to solve my difficulties one step at a time. 2.5 1.1 .546 .032 .204 .82 .79
 7 I try to recognize the warning signs of a relapse of my mental health disorder. 2.4 1.3 .524 .011 .300 .82 .79
 8 I learn to differentiate between my mental health problem and myself as a person. 1.7 1.4 .613 -.164 .162 .82 .80
 9 I focus my attention on the present moment. 2.2 1.2 .564 -.107 .091 .82 .80
 10 I learn to live with my strengths and weaknesses. 2.6 1.2 .582 -.041 .018 .82 .80
 11 I congratulate myself on my successes, whether small or large. 2.1 1.2 .718 .124 -.188 .82 .78
 12 I try to love myself as I am. 1.8 1.3 .690 .218 -.299 .82 .79
 13 I take my capabilities into account when arranging my schedule. 2.4 1.2 .231 .246 -.019 .83 .82
 14 I find comfort and an attentive ear in the people around me. 2.3 1.3 .262 .386 .165 .82 .80
Vitality factor (α = .75) 8.3 3.9      
 15 I engage in activities I like in order to maintain an active life. 2.6 1.2 .080 .578 .083 .82 .71
 16 I engage in sports, physical activity. 1.9 1.3 -.229 .870 -.031 .83 .66
 17 I have a healthy diet. 2.4 1.3 .090 .599 -.027 .82 .70
 18 I do exercises to relax (yoga, tai-chi, breathing techniques, etc.). 1.4 1.4 -.034 .670 .110 .82 .71
  1. a: The latest English version (2017) of MHSQ was obtained from the author of MHSQ by private communication
  2. b: Factor loadings were based on exploratory factor analysis with generalized least-squares method and promax rotation