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Table 2 Psychological and cardiological outcomes in the initial and final evaluations

From: Music therapy intervention in cardiac autonomic modulation, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterms: randomized controlled trial

Parameter Music therapy group Control group
Initial Mean ± SD Final Mean ± SD Effect size Initial Mean ± SD Final Mean ± SD Effect size
BAI 15.10 ± 10.25 5.40 ± 4.72* 0.519 (M) 10.70 ± 8.54 6.00 ± 4.94 0.319 (S)
BDI 15.70 ± 10.68 6.30 ± 5.52* 0.483 (S) 16.00 ± 17.95 10.20 ± 16.26 0.163 (S)
RR intervals 718.80 ± 101.73 630.70 ± 402.50 0.148 (S) 770.53 ± 121.14 745.95 ± 122.88 0.100 (S)
SDNN (ms) 35.01 ± 14.92 44.53 ± 12.95*# −0.322 (S) 41.35 ± 19.90 43.53 ± 22.11 − 0.051 (S)
RMSSD (ms) 23.66 ± 10.21 36.59 ± 17.58* − 0.410 (S) 28.14 ± 15.82 31.59 ± 20.07 −0.095 (S)
pNN50 (%) 6.08 ± 7.96 18.37 ± 17.30* − 0.415 (S) 8.85 ± 12.08 11.54 ± 17.96 − 0.087 (S)
SD1 16.76 ± 7.22 25.91 ± 12.45* − 0.410 (S) 18.41 ± 12.68 22.41 ± 14.34 − 0.146 (S)
SD2 46.50 ± 20.16 56.95 ± 15.63 − 0.278 (S) 51.75 ± 30.35 58.25 ± 28.32 − 0.110 (S)
DFA α1 1.11 ± 0.22 1.05 ± 0.35 0.102 (S) 1.12 ± 0.24 1.16 ± 0.23 −0.084 (S)
DFA α2 0.94 ± 0.16 0.89 ± 0.24 0.121 (S) 1.05 ± 0.34 0.86 ± 0.21 0.318 (S)
VLF (0–0.04 Hz) 733.50 ± 774.68 823.60 ± 675.78 −0.061 (S) 1039.20 ± 1026.09 943.10 ± 1432.13 0.038 (S)
LF (0.04–0.15 Hz) 508.90 ± 433.67 630.70 ± 402.50 −0.144 (S) 504.50 ± 419.49 601.30 ± 595.61 −0.093 (S)
HF (0.15–0.4 Hz) 565.20 ± 1013.54 611.10 ± 462.50 −0.029 (S) 397.30 ± 331.67 435.60 ± 503.28 −0.044 (S)
Total 1808.00 ± 1798.51 1950.12 ± 1364.49 −0.044 (S) 1941.20 ± 1660.41 1980.00 ± 2200.50 −0.009 (S)
LF/HF 1.95 ± 1.14 1.85 ± 2.01 0.030 (S) 2.20 ± 2.23 1.88 ± 1.23 0.088 (S)
LF (n.u.) 60.14 ± 18.61 53.35 ± 21.43 0.166 (S) 58.38 ± 19.23 60.13 ± 14.35 −0.051 (S)
HF (n.u.) 39.83 ± 18.62 46.65 ± 21.45 − 0.167 (S) 41.60 ± 19.26 39.87 ± 14.35 0.050 (S)
  1. SD Standard deviation, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, RR intervals Intervals between consecutive heartbeats, SDNN Standard deviation of NN intervals, NN intervals Interbeat intervals from which artifacts have been removed, RMSSD Root mean square of successive differences between adjacent RR intervals, pNN50, NN50 count divided by the total number of NN intervals, NN50 Number of successive NN intervals differing more than 50 ms, SD1 Instantaneous beat-to-beat variability, SD2 Continuous beat-to-beat variability, DFA α1 Detrended fluctuation analysis of short-term fractal scaling exponents, DFA α2 Detrended fluctuation analysis of long-term fractal scaling exponents, VLF Very low frequency, LF Low frequency, HF High frequency, (M) Medium effect size [20], (S) Small effect size [20]; *significant at p ≤ 0.05 in intergroup evaluation in the final evaluation using paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon test; # significant at p < 0.05 in intergroup evaluation in the final evaluation using t-test