Skip to main content

Table 6 Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios of the association of violence and coercion (threats) with anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression in trafficked males, n = 446

From: Mental health, violence and psychological coercion among female and male trafficking survivors in the greater Mekong sub-region: a cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted Model Adjusted Model 1a Adjusted Model 2b
PRc 95% CId PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Anxiety
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence additional with threats made with weapons 1.49 1.00–2.19* 1.41 0.86–2.31   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.36 1.14–1.62***    1.33 1.08–1.64**
  Both personal and family threats 1.64 1.40–1.92***    1.68 1.43–1.97***
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence with additional threats made with weapons 1.60 0.92–2.78 1.59 1.05–2.42*   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.80 1.39–2.35***    1.75 1.51–2.03***
  Both personal and family threats 1.92 1.65–2.24***    1.62 1.31–2.00***
Depression
 Violence
  No violence (reference) 1.0   1.0    
  Physical violence with additional threats made with weapons 1.39 0.83–2.33 1.47 0.91–2.36   
 Receiving threats during trafficking
  None (reference) 1.0     1.0  
  Personal threats 1.39 1.28–1.50***    1.46 1.35–1.57***
  Both personal and family threats 1.42 1.24–1.62***    1.33 1.11–1.58***
  1. Models for anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder were run separately but they were adjusted for the same variables
  2. *p ≤ 0.05
  3. **p ≤ 0.01
  4. ***p ≤ 0.001
  5. aAdjusted Model 1 (violence): age, country of exploitation, sector of exploitation, time in trafficking
  6. bAdjusted Model 2 (coercion or threats): age, country of exploitation, sector of exploitation, time in trafficking
  7. cPR Prevalence ratio
  8. d95% Confidence interval