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Table 4 Adjusted mean scores (M) with confidence intervals (CI) of mental health related problems by household size

From: Effect of household size on mental problems in children: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study

Household size Na 3 years 5 years 8 years
Emotional regulation Anxiety Eating/somatic Hyperactivity/concentration Anxiety Difficult temperament Anxiety Depression
M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI) M (95 % CI)
1 1 598 .00 (-.05, .05) -.04 (-.10, .01) .04 (-.02, .09) -.01 (-.06, .04) -.03 (-.10, .05) .05 (-.03, .12) .01 (-.09, .10) .11 (-.01, .21)
2 23 535 - - - - - - - -
3 17 041 .02 (.00, .04) -.24 (-.26,-.22) -.23 (-.25,-.21) -.08 (-.10,-.06) -.15 (-.17,-.12) -.13 (-.16,-.10) -.10 (-.14,-.07) -.08 (-.11,-.04)
4 7388 -.07 (-.10,-.04) -.29 (-.31,-.26) -.25 (-.28,-.22) -.24 (-.27,-.21) -.22 (-.25,-.18) -.31 (-.35,-.28) -.16 (-.20,-.11) -.14 (-.18,-.10)
5 1 528 -.15 (-.20,-.10) -.30 (-.35,-.25) -.28 (-.33,-.23) -.28 (-.33,-.23) -.16 (-.24,-.09) -.29 (-.36,-.23) -.20 (-.28,-.11) -.12 (-.20,-.04)
6+ 479 -.09 (-.19,-.00) -.33 (-.42,-.24) -.23 (-.32,-.14) -.25 (-.33,-.16) -.27 (-.38,-.16) -.39 (-.50,-.28) -.24 (-.39,-.08) -.10 (-.26, .07)
  1. aNumbers of participants is for 3 years of age. Approximate numbers are 56 % of the listed figures for 5 years, and 34 % for 8 years
  2. The outcome scores are z-scaled (SD = 1) with parents only (size = 2) as reference. The results are adjusted for maternal age, maternal and paternal educational level, family income, maternal and paternal period of leave from work after child’s birth, maternal breastfeeding status when child is 18 months, and animals in the family. p < 10−9 (overall test of mean differences between categories) for the effect of household size (3 and more) on all outcome variables