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Table 1 Distribution of sex, age, education, income, Positive Mental Health and tobacco consumption by rural, migrant and urban groups in Peru. The PERU MIGRANT study, 2009

From: Tobacco consumption and positive mental health: an epidemiological study from a positive psychology perspective

   Rural   Migrant   Urban   
   (N = 201) (N = 589) (N = 199) p*
   n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Sex         
  Male 95 47.3 280 47.5 92 46.2 0.95
  Female 106 52.7 309 52.5 107 53.8  
Age (years)        
  30-39 61 30.4 154 26.2 54 27.1 0.38
  40-49 55 27.4 178 30.3 51 25.6  
  50-59 48 23.9 173 29.5 61 30.7  
  60-99 37 18.4 82 14.0 33 16.6  
Education        
  without studies 68 33.8 59 10.0 2 1.0 <0.001
  primary 94 46.8 223 37.9 34 17.2  
  secondary 33 16.4 242 41.2 107 54.0  
  superior 6 3.0 64 10.9 55 27.8  
Income        
  <= 160 soles (US$ 50) 109 69.0 8 1.4 2 1.0 <0.001
  between 161–480 soles (US$ 51–150) 32 20.3 143 25.8 36 18.7  
  between 481–800 soles (US$ 151–250) 10 6.3 292 52.6 104 53.9  
  > = 801 soles (> = US$ 251) 7 4.4 112 20.2 51 26.4  
Positive Mental Health        
  (mean(standard deviation)) 198 (5.9(1.9)) 483 (6.5(1.8)) 163 (6.8(1.8)) <0.001
Tobacco Consumption (TC)        
  Lifetime TC 124 61.7 441 76.2 154 78.2 <0.001
  Recent TC 71 35.3 121 20.5 61 30.7 <0.001
  N° cigarettes in the last 30 days (median(iqr range)) 6 (10(1–20)) 37 (5(3–20)) 32 (5.5(1–26.5)) 0.95
  1. *Chi-square test for categorical variables, ANOVA oneway for positive mental health and Kruskal-Wallis for N° cigarettes in the last 30 days
  2. Lifetime TC: Have you ever smoked a cigarette? Current TC: Are you currently smoker? or Have you smoked in the last six months?
  3. Source: PERU MIGRANT Study dataset