Skip to main content

Table 1 Study hypotheses

From: A protocol for a randomised active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive control, critical thinking and key thinking dispositions in a university student sample

Outcomes Variable Measure   Hypothesis Analysis
Primary Mindfulness Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire 1 Mindfulness will increase more for the mindfulness meditation (MM) group than for the sham meditation (SM) group from t1 to t4 Mixed ANOVA
  Critical Thinking Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment1, Heuristic and Biases items2 2 Critical thinking will increase more for the MM group than for the SM group from t1 to t4 (a 1,2 ) and this effect will be moderated by baseline endorsement of thinking dispositions (b 1,2 ) Mixed ANOVA, ANCOVA
  Thinking Dispositions Actively Open-minded Thinking1, Need for Cognition2 3 Endorsement of critical thinking dispositions will increase more for the MM group than for the SM group from t1 to t4 (a 1,2 ) Mixed ANOVA
  Executive Control Sternberg Working Memory Task 4 Executive control will increase more for the MM group than for the SM group from t1 to t4 (a) and this increase will mediate the relationship between levels of mindfulness and critical thinking performance following the intervention (b) Mixed ANOVA, SEM
Secondary Wellbeing Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale 5 Wellbeing will increase and negative affect will decrease more for the MM group than for the SM group from t1 to t4 Mixed ANOVA
  Positive Affect and Negative Affect Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule subscale 6 Positive affect will increase more for the MM group than for the SM group from t1 to t4 (a) Mixed ANOVA
  Real-world Outcomes Real-world Outcomes Inventory 7 Negative real-world outcomes will decrease more for the MM group than for SM group from t1 to t4 Mixed ANOVA
Manipulation Checks Meditation Quality Practice Quality-Meditation 8 Meditation quality will be positively associated with increases in mindfulness (a), executive control (b) and critical thinking (c 1,2 ) and meditation quantity (d), task enjoyment (e) and task difficulty (f) and it will be higher in the MM group and across time. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA
  Meditation Quantity Total Minutes Spent Meditating 9 Meditation quantity will be positively associated with increases in mindfulness (a), executive control (b) and critical thinking (c 1,2 ) and meditation quality (d), task enjoyment (e) and task difficulty (f) and will not differ across time or groups. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA
  Task Enjoyment Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire subscale 10 Task enjoyment will be positively associated with increases in mindfulness (a), executive control (b) and critical thinking (c 1,2) and meditation quality (d), meditation quantity (e) and task difficulty (f) and will not differ across time or groups. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA
  Task Difficulty Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire subscale 11 Task difficulty will be positively associated with increases in mindfulness (a), executive control (b) and critical thinking (c 1,2) and meditation quality (d), meditation quantity (e) and task difficulty (f) and will not differ across time or groups. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA
  Intervention Acceptability Items from Kirkpatrick et al. [60] 12 Intervention acceptability will be positively associated with increases in mindfulness (a), executive control (b) and critical thinking (c 1,2 ) and meditation quantity (d), task enjoyment (e) and task difficulty (f) and it will be higher in the MM group but will not differ across time. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA
  Attrition No. of participants lost from baseline to t4 13 Attrition will be negatively associated with meditation quality (a), meditation quantity (b), task enjoyment (c) and task difficulty (d) and will not differ across time or groups. Correlation, Mixed ANOVA