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Table 4 Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses predicting mental health from lifestyle behaviour variables

From: Lifestyle choices and mental health: a representative population survey

  Life satisfaction Depression Anxiety Stress
  ß CI ( 95 %) ß CI ( 95 %) ß CI ( 95 %) ß CI ( 95 %)
Step 1: Sociodemographic variables
 Gender 0.01 −0.02 0.03 −0.03* −0.05 -0.01 −0.03* −0.05 -0.01 −0.07*** −0.09 -0.05
 Age 0.02 −0.01 0.04 −0.07*** −0.10 -0.05 −0.01 −0.04 0.02 −0.14*** −0.17 -0.12
 Education 0.12*** 0.10 0.15 −0.13*** −0.15 -0.10 −0.13*** −0.15 -0.10 −0.07*** −0.09 -0.04
 Marital statusa Reference: married
  Divorced −0.15*** −0.17 -0.12 0.09*** 0.06 0.11 0.04*** 0.02 0.07 −0.01 −0.03 0.02
  Single −0.15*** −0.17 -0.12 0.09*** 0.06 0.12 0.05*** 0.02 0.07 −0.01 −0.03 0.02
 Methoda Reference: online
  Mixed 0.07*** 0.04 0.09 −0.09*** −0.11 -0.06 −0.10*** −0.13 -0.07 −0.05** −0.08 -0.02
  Face-to-face 0.09*** 0.06 0.11 −0.19*** −0.22 -0.16 −0.21*** −0.24 -0.19 −0.17*** −0.20 -0.14
  Telephone 0.27*** 0.25 0.30 −0.21*** −0.24 -0.18 −0.18*** −0.20 -0.15 −0.12*** −0.15 -0.10
R 2 .10   .06   .04   .05  
Step 2: Sociodemographic variables and lifestyle behaviours
 Gender 0.01 −0.02 0.03 −0.03* −0.05 0.00 −0.02 −0.05 0.00 −0.08*** −0.10 -0.06
 Age 0.02 −0.01 0.04 −0.06*** −0.08 -0.03 0.00 −0.03 0.03 −0.15*** −0.17 -0.12
 Education 0.07*** 0.04 0.09 −0.07*** −0.10 -0.05 −0.08*** −0.11 -0.06 −0.03** −0.06 -0.01
 Marital statusa Reference: married
  Divorced −0.13*** −0.15 -0.11 0.07*** 0.04 0.09 0.02 0.00 0.05 −0.02 −0.04 0.00
  Single −0.14*** −0.17 -0.12 0.08*** 0.05 0.10 0.03* 0.01 0.06 −0.02 −0.04 0.01
 Methoda Reference: online
  Mixed 0.10*** 0.07 0.12 −0.13*** −0.70 -3.00 −0.14*** −0.17 -0.11 −0.09*** −0.11 -0.06
  Face-to-face 0.09*** 0.07 0.12 −0.20*** −0.11 -7.00 −0.22*** −0.25 -0.19 −0.18*** −0.21 -0.15
  Telephone 0.23*** 0.20 0.25 −0.17*** −0.70 -3.00 −0.15*** −0.18 -0.12 −0.10*** −0.13 -0.07
 Physical activity 0.10*** 0.07 0.12 −0.05*** −0.07 -0.02 −0.04* −0.06 -0.01 −0.02 −0.04 0.01
 Mental/cultural activity 0.06*** 0.03 0.08 −0.09*** −0.11 -0.07 −0.07*** −0.09 -0.05 −0.07*** −0.10 -0.05
 Alcohol frequency (linear) 0.04*** 0.02 0.06 −0.06*** −0.08 -0.03 −0.08*** −0.10 -0.05 0.01 −0.02 0.03
 Alcohol frequency (quadratic) −0.05*** −0.07 -0.03 0.05*** 0.03 0.07 0.06*** 0.04 0.08 0.04*** 0.02 0.06
 Smoking (yes/no) 0.06*** 0.03 0.08 −0.05*** −0.07 -0.03 −0.03* −0.05 0.00 −0.03** −0.06 -0.01
 Body mass index (linear) −0.04** −0.07 -0.02 0.01 −0.01 0.04 0.03* 0.00 0.06 0.04* 0.00 0.07
 Body mass index (quadratic) −0.01* −0.02 0.00 0.01** 0.01 0.02 0.02* 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.01
 Circadian irregularity −0.08*** −0.10 -0.06 0.12*** 0.09 0.14 0.10*** 0.08 0.13 0.09*** 0.07 0.11
 Social irregularity −0.15*** −0.17 -0.13 0.14*** 0.12 0.17 0.08*** 0.06 0.10 0.14*** 0.11 0.16
R 2 .16   .13   .08   .09  
  1. Note. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
  2. aCategorial predictors were dummy-coded; each category presented is tested against all other categories.