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Table 1 Associations between different sociodemographic factors, health indicators and cortisol concentrations

From: Higher perceived stress and poorer health reflected in elevated cortisol concentrations measured in extracts of hair from middle-aged healthy women

Health indicators Univariate associations Multivariate associations§)
  n (%) Cortisol pg/mg mean s.d. r p-value Beta p-value
Self-reported health (min/max: 2/10) 110 - - −0.21 0.027##) −0.21 0.029
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (min/max: 2/33) 110 - - 0.20 0.041##) 0.21 0.031
HAD-depression (min/max: 0/10 110 - - 0.23 0.014##) 0.23 0.016
HAD-anxiety (min/max: 0/15) 110 - - 0.13 0.185##) 0.15 0.131
Age (min/max: 22/66) 110    0.09 0.36##) - -
Serious life events     0.12 0.231#) - -
Yes 23 (21) 65.1 54.7     
No 87 (79) 49.4 55.9     
Smoking habits        
Smoker 12 (11) 46.8 31.8 0.04 0.704 - -
Non-smoker 98 (89) 53.4 58.1     
Dyed/permed hair       - -
Yes 54 (49) 47.5 45.6 0.09 0.344   
No 56 (51) 57.6 64.2     
Exercise habits     0.18 0.184 - -
Never 14 (13) 75.9 101.4     
Sometimes 26 (24) 42.0 43.6     
Regularly 70 (63) 52.0 46.3     
Ointments with cortisone     0.08 0.408 - -
Yes 9 (8) 37.1 24.3     
No 101 (92) 50.4 47.4     
Longstanding illness     0.05 0.633#) - -
Yes 22 (20) 47.5 45.6     
No 88 (80) 53.9 58.2     
Sleep disturbances     0.05 0.579#) - -
Yes 73 (66) 54.8 58.4     
No 37 (34) 48.5 50.8     
Stomach pain     0.10 0.290#) - -
Yes 35 (32) 60.9 48.6     
No 75 (68) 48.8 58.8     
  1. ##)Pearson correlation and cortisol concentrations.
  2. #)ANOVA and cortisol concentrations.
  3. §)Adjusted for age in multiple linear regressions.