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Table 5 Summary of hierarchical regression analyses for each of four cognitive measures as dependent variables, and socio-demographics, state and trait positive mood as predictor variables

From: Mood and cognition in healthy older European adults: the Zenith study

Measure Step Predictor variables R 2 ∆R 2 F p
Pattern recognition memory (ms)
  1 Socio-demographics .099 .099 F (4, 359) = 9.81 < .001
  2 State positive mood .099 .000 F(1, 358) = 0.16 .686
  3 Trait positive Mood mean and variability .102 .003 F(2, 356) = 0.51 .597
Spatial working memory – total errors
  1 Socio-demographics .041 .041 F (4, 359) = 3.81 .005
  2 State positive mood .071 .030 F (1, 358) = 11.69 .001
  3 Trait positive Mood mean and variability .075 .004 F(2, 356) = 0.69 .498
5-Choice Reaction Time (ms)
  1 Socio-demographics .155 .155 F (4, 359) = 16.45 < .001
  2 State positive mood .161 .006 F(1, 358) = 2.36 .125
  3 Trait positive Mood mean and variability .166 .006 F(2, 356) = 1.19 .307
Match to sample visual search (ms)
  1 Socio-demographics .158 .158 F (4, 359) = 16.87 < .001
  2 State positive mood .162 .004 F(1, 358) = 1.52 .218
  3 Trait positive Mood mean and variability .178 .016 F (2, 356) = 3.47 .032
  1. Note. Significant increases in R 2 indicated in bold. The first step in the regression analysis involved entering socio-demographic information of age in years, sex and social class, followed by state positive mood in step two, and lastly, in step three trait measures of positive mood and its variability were entered. It should be noted that each step, after step one, included the variable(s) from the previous step(s).