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Table 1 Psychosocial studies on suicidal behaviour in patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychosis

From: Suicide prevention in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and psychosis: a systematic review

Trial Content Control Population Delivery type Delivery format Delivery length Post-test/ follow up Outcome measure Outcomes (Intervention vs. control) Effect size or O.R. (95% CI) JQR
Barrowclough et al., 2010 (UK) Integrated motivational interviewing and CBT plus TAU (n=164) TAU (n=163) Out-patients (>16 yrs) with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder and dependence on or misuse of drugs, alcohol or both F2F IND 12 mo 12/24 mo Deliberate self-harm Non-significant increase in self-harm in the intervention-group. 12 mo O.R.: 1.38 (0.65–2.96), P=.40; 24 mo O.R.: 1.48 (0.56–3.91), P=.43 3
Bateman et al., 2007 (UK) CBT + MED (n=46) Attention control + MED(n=44) Out-patients (16–60 yrs) with chronic schizophrenia F2F IND 9 mo 9 mo/ 18 mo Suicidal ideation (CPRS) No suicides. Significant reductions in suicidal ideation at post-test and follow-up for CBT n.a. 1
Cunningham Owens et al., 2001 (Scotland) Educational intervention (n=61) TAU (n=53) Schizophrenic out-patients (16–64 yrs) Video and booklets IND 1 session Follow up: 12 mo Suicidal ideation (MADRS) No suicides. Suicidal ideation increased (P<.001) n.a. 2
Färdig et al., 2011 (Sweden) IMR (n=21) TAU (n=20) Out-patient schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder F2F/ Power-point Group 9 mo 9 mo/ 21 mo Suicidal ideation (PECC) Significant decrease in suicidal ideation at follow-up PT: O.R.: 0.81 (0.28–2.33), P=0.69 FU: O.R.: 0.13 (0.04–0.41), P<.001 2
Grawe et al., 2006 (Norway) IT (n=30) TAU (n=20) Out-patients (18–35 yrs) with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or schizophreniform disorder F2F IND 24 mo Post-test: 24 mo Suicidal behaviour (attempts and suicide) No suicides. Non-significant decrease on suicidal behaviour in intervention group. O.R.: 0.95 (0.33–2.73), P=0.92 3
Nordentoft et al., 2002 (Denmark) IT (n=156) TAU (n=148) In- and out-patients (18–65 yrs) with schizophrenia, schizotypical disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, acute or transient psychosis, induced psychosis or unspecific non-organic psychosis F2F IND 24 mo Follow up: 12 mo Tedium vitae, suicidal thoughts, -plans-, attempts (EPSIS II) One suicide in the intervention group and one suicide or accident in the TAU group. No significant differences for suicidal behaviour Thoughts: O.R.: 1.13 (0.54–2.35), P=.74. Plans: O.R.: 0.77 (0.30–1.98), P=.58. Attempts: O.R.: 0.95 (0.40–2.25), P=.91 2
Peters et al., 2010 (UK) CBT (n=36) TAU (n=38) Out-patients (18–65 yrs) with ≥1 distressing and persistent positive symptom of psychosis F2F IND 6 mo 6 mo/9 mo Suicidal Ideation (BSI) No suicides. Significant reduction in being suicidal at 6 mo (but not at 9 mo) 6 mo O.R.:0.09 (0.02–0.53), P=.008; 9 mo O.R.:0.32 (0.07–1.6), P=.16 2
Power et al., 2003 (Australia) Cognitive therapy plus TAU (n=31) TAU (n=25) Suicidal first episode psychosis out-patients (15–29 yrs) F2F IND 10 weeks 10 weeks/ 6 mo Suicidal ideation (SIQ) Two participants (one in each group) committed suicide. Significant greater average improvement on suicidal ideation in exp. group PT O.R.: 0.29 (0.10–0.87), P=0.03 1
Tarrier et al., 2006 (UK) CBT+TAU (n=101) and SC+TAU (n=106) TAU (n=102) In- or daypatients with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder or psychosis NOS F2F IND 5 weeks 6 we/ 18 mo Suicide and suicidal behaviour (self-harm, thoughts, attempts) (HoNOS) Two suicides in the SC, one in CBT. Non- significant reduction in suicidal behaviour 6 we: CBT O.R.: 0.67 (.107–4.136) P=.66, SC: O.R.: 0.95 (.185–4.903), P=.9 18 mo: CBT: O.R.: 0.359 (.067–1.919) P=.23. SC: O.R.: 1.033 (0.301–3.55) P=.96 3
Turkington et al., 2002 (UK) CBT + MED (n=257) TAU + MED (n=165) Out-patients (18–65 yrs) with schizophrenia F2F + booklets IND 2/3 mo 9 mo Suicidal ideation (CPRS) One suicide in TAU. Non-significant increase on the CPRS suicidal ideation score. PT O.R.:1.72 (0.78–3.82), P=.20 2
  1. BSI: Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale; CPRS: Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale; EPSIS II: European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule II; F2F: Face-to-Face; HoNOS: Health of Nation Outcome Scales; IMR: illness management and recovery; IND: individual; JQR: Jadad’s Quality Rating; MADRS: Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MED: Medication; Mo: Months; N.A.: Not Applicable; NOS: Not Otherwise Specified; N.S.: Not Significant; O.R.: Odds Ratio; PECC: Psychosis Evaluation Tool for Common Use by Caregivers; SIQ: Suicide Ideation Questionnaire; SC: Supportive Counselling; TAU: Treatment As Usual.