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Table 3 Results of principal component analysis (oblimin rotation), extracting 5 factors from the different compassion questionnaires

From: Mind full of kindness: self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence as vehicles for compassion

Original scale and item number Item Empathy Indifference Common humanity Recognizing suffering Willingness to act
CLH15 If a person (a stranger) is troubled, I usually feel extreme tenderness and caring 0.84     
CLH12 I often have tender feelings toward people (strangers) when they seem to be in need 0.82     
CLH9 I tend to feel compassion for people even though I do not know them 0.82     
CLH6 I feel considerable compassionate love for people from everywhere 0.76     
CLH13 I feel a selfless caring for most of mankind 0.76     
CLH11 I would rather engage in actions that help others, even though they are strangers, than engage in actions that would help me 0.75     
CLH10 One of the activities that provides me with the most meaning to my life is helping others in the world who need help 0.74     
CLH17 I try to put myself in a stranger’s shoes when he or she is in trouble 0.70     
CLH20 I want to spend time with people I don’t know well so that I can help enrich their lives 0.70     
CLH5 If I encounter a stranger who needs help, I would do almost anything I could to help him or her 0.69     
CLH14 I accept others whom I do not know even when they do things I think are wrong 0.67     
CLH3 When I hear about someone (a stranger) going through a difficult time, I feel a great deal of compassion for him or her 0.66     
CLH18 I feel happy when I see that others (strangers) are happy 0.65     
CLH4 It is easy for me to feel the pain (and joy) experienced by others, even though I do not know them 0.63     
CLH2 When I see people I do not know feeling sad, I feel a need to reach out to them 0.61     
CLH8 If given the opportunity, I am willing to sacrifice in order to let the people from other places who are less fortunate achieve their goals 0.59     
CLH7 I would rather suffer myself than see someone else (a stranger) suffer 0.58     
CLH1 When I see people I do not know feeling sad, I feel a need to reach out to them 0.55     
CLH16 I try to understand rather than judge people who are strangers to me 0.53     
CLH19 Those whom I encounter through work and public life can assume that I will be there for them if they need me 0.43     
CS-P3 I am unconcerned with other people’s problems   0.73    
CS-P7 I think little about the concerns of others   0.69    
RCS3 I find it hard to understand other peoples' problems   0.62    
CS-P15 I can’t really connect with other people when they’re suffering   0.61    
CS-P11 I try to avoid people who are experiencing a lot of pain   0.60    
RCS4 I don't know what to do when other people are distressed   0.52    
CS-P1 I pay careful attention when other people talk to me about their troubles   − 0.50    
CS-P9 I listen patiently when people tell me their problems   − 0.50    
CS-P14 When others feel sadness, I try to comfort them   − 0.50    
SOCS-O9 I stay with and listen to other people when they’re upset even if it’s hard to bear   − 0.49    
CS-P2 If I see someone going through a difficult time, I try to be caring toward that person   − 0.48    
RCS1 I like to listen to other peoples' experiences   − 0.43    
SOCS-O8 When I hear about bad things happening to other people, I feel concern for their wellbeing   − 0.43    
SOCS-O4 When someone else is upset, I try to stay open to their feelings rather than avoid them   − 0.42    
CS-P6 I like to be there for others in times of difficulty   − 0.40    
SOCS-O2 I understand that everyone experiences suffering at some point in their lives    0.82   
SOCS-O7 I understand that feeling upset at times is part of human nature    0.82   
SOCS-O12 Like me, I know that other people also experience struggles in life    0.77   
CS-P4 I realize everyone feels down sometimes, it is part of being human    0.70   
SOCS-O17 I know that we can all feel upset at times when we are wronged    0.70   
CS-P16 Despite my differences with others, I know that everyone feels pain just like me    0.60   
CS-P8 I feel it’s important to recognize that all people have weaknesses and no one’s perfect    0.59   
CS-P12 I feel that suffering is just a part of the common human experience    0.58   
CS-P13 When people tell me about their problems, I try to keep a balanced perspective on the situation    0.48   
SOCS-O3 When someone is going through a difficult time, I feel kindly towards them    0.42   
SOCS-O11 I’m quick to notice early signs of distress in others     0.85  
SOCS-O6 I notice when others are feeling distressed     0.84  
SOCS-O1 I recognize when other people are feeling distressed without them having to tell me     0.82  
SOCS-O16 I recognize signs of suffering in others     0.79  
CS-P5 I notice when people are upset, even if they don’t say anything     0.70  
CS-M3 How much of your future savings would you give away now to help a stranger in need of financial help?      0.64
CS-M5 How much of your personal space would you share with a friend?      0.63
CS-M6 How much of your personal space would you share with a stranger that poses no threat to you?      0.60
CS-M4 How much of your free time would you spend to do work for a stranger that needs your skills but cannot afford to pay you?      0.57
CS-M8 How many times would you do the right thing if it puts your family at risk?      0.54
CS-M1 How much of your future savings would you give away now to help a friend in need of financial help?      0.53
CS-M10 How many times would you allow others the pleasure of something that causes you pain?      0.52
CS-M7 How many times would you do the right thing if it puts your friends at risk?      0.49
CS-M2 How much of your future savings would you give away now to help a stranger in need of financial help?      0.48
  1. n = 407. CLH = Compassionate Love for Humanity; CS-M = Compassion Scale (Martin); CS-P = Compassion Scale (Pommier); RCS = Relational Compassion Scale; SOCS-O = Sussex-Oxford Compassion for Others Scale. Items not included in the Table had factor loadings below 0.40