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Table 2 Frequency of app use (N = 69) (1 = Rarely; 2 = Occasionally; 3 = Sometimes; 4 = Often; 5 = Daily)

From: College students’ attachment to their smartphones: a subjective operant approach

App (utility) Mean SD
QQ (instant messaging) 4.88 0.54
Alipay (mobile payment) 4.64 0.73
WeChat (social networking) 4.49 0.94
Clock (time-keeping) 4.37 1.13
Sina Weibo (microblogging) 4.03 1.15
Baidu (search engine) 3.94 1.01
NetEase cloud music (music streaming) 3.81 1.37
ELEME (online food delivery) 3.78 1.31
Taobao (online shopping) 3.73 1.02
Weather (weather forecast) 3.67 1.28
(Built-in) camera (photo-taking) 3.66 1.05
bilibili (video sharing) 3.33 1.40
Reminders (planner & calendar) 2.88 1.15
Meituan (location-based E-commerce) 2.76 1.22
Voice call (conventional phone call) 2.75 1.12
Aiqiyi (online video) 2.55 1.33
TikTok (video-focused social networking) 2.31 1.42
Didi (ride-hailing) 2.25 0.91
SMS (mobile phone-based text messaging) 2.10 1.08
Ulike (photo retouching) 2.09 1.15
NetEase youdao (online dictionary & information seeking) 2.09 1.26
RED/Xiaohongshu (social media & E-commerce hybrid) 1.96 1.21
Toutiao (news & information updates) 1.93 1.11