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Table 1 Objectives and design of Study 1 and Study 2

From: Pain catastrophizing, pain sensitivity and fear of pain are associated with early life environmental unpredictability: a path model approach

Study 1 Study 2
Goal: to test the associations of pain sensitivity, and pain catastrophizing with childhood environmental conditions and perceived unpredictability via the mediation of body awareness
Prediction: both pain catastrophizing and pain sensitivity could be enhanced with a higher extent of unpredictability emerging from disadvantages experienced in childhood through the mediator role of body awareness
Goal: to test the association of fear of pain with childhood environmental conditions and perceived unpredictability via the mediation of body awareness
Prediction: fear of pain could be enhanced with a higher extent of unpredictability emerging from disadvantages experienced in childhood through the mediator role of body awareness
Participants Participants
N = 252
Community sample
Pain-free individuals by self-report
Age: 18 and 35 years (mean age: 24.6, SD = 4.72)
Sex: 176 females (69.84%), 76 males
N = 293
Community sample (different to that tested in Study 1)
Pain-free individuals by self-report
Age: 18 and 72 years (mean age: 33.6, SD = 11.70)
Sex: 243 females (82.94%), 50 males
Variables Variables
Childhood socioeconomic status
Childhood Household Unpredictability
Childhood Family Resources
Unpredictability Schema Questionnaire
Body Awareness Questionnaire
Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire
Pain Catastrophizing Scale
Childhood socioeconomic status
Childhood Household Unpredictability
Childhood Family Resources
Unpredictability Schema Questionnaire
Body Awareness Questionnaire
Short Beck Depression Inventory
Fear of Pain Questionnaire
Analyses Analyses
Structural Equation Modeling
Path Modell 1: socioeconomic status and household unpredictability → family resources → unpredictability schema → body awareness → pain sensitivity (see also Fig. 1)
Path Modell 2: socioeconomic status and household unpredictability → family resources → unpredictability schema → body awareness → pain catastrophizing (see also Fig. 2)
The models were controlled for sex
Structural Equation Modeling
Path Modell: socioeconomic status and household unpredictability → family resources → unpredictability schema → body awareness → Fear of Pain (see also Fig. 3)
The model was controlled for depression and sex