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Table 2 Prevalence of various types of long-term pain and number of pain symptoms in relationship to resilience and reported life stressors affecting the person’s life in the past year

From: Subjective perception of life stress events affects long-term pain: the role of resilience

Research groups Resilience Differences between groups Life stress events affecting the respondents’ life in the past year
No Yes
n Mean (SD) n % n %
Number of pain symptoms
 A. No long-term problems (healthy) 405 3.22 (0.69) A–B***, A–C***, A–D***, B–D* 360 88.9 45 11.1
 B. 1 long-term pain symptom 616 2.96 (0.69)   435 70.6 181 29.4
 C. 2 long-term pain symptoms 197 2.79 (0.70)   132 67.0 65 33.0
 D. ≥ 3 long-term pain symptoms 42 2.67 (0.79)   15 35.7 27 64.3
Type of long-term pain
 Arthritis 121 2.82 (0.64)   82 67.8 39 32.2
 Backpain 631 2.91 (0.70)   422 66.9 209 33.1
 Migraine 223 2.87 (0.75)   148 66.4 75 33.6
 Pelvic pain 68 2.71 (0.71)   34 50.0 34 50.0
 Pain of unclear origin 99 2.72 (0.73)   61 61.6 38 38.4
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, according to the Kruskal–Wallis test