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Table 2 Confirmatory factor analysis results

From: Development and validation of self-efficacy and intention measures for spending time in nature

Constructs and measurement item Standardized loadingad Error varianceb Indicator reliability
First-order loadings
 Self-efficacy (α = .919; ρ = .933; AVE = .584)c
  It is really hot outside .72 .012 .518
  It is really cold outside .69 .012 .476
  It is raining or snowing .68 .012 .462
  Daylight hours are shorter .74 .011 .548
  You are busy .75 .010 .563
  You feel stressed .73 .011 .533
  Nature is far away .70 .012 .490
  You feel tired .78 .010 .608
  There are no people around .65 .014 .423
  You have no one to go with .72 .011 .518
  You are in pain .72 .011 .518
  You lack transportation to natural areas .68 .012 .462
  It feels unsafe .62 .014 .384
  There is an expense involved (like a park pass or entrance fee) .62 .014 .384
 Intentions (α = .91; ρ = .90; AVE = .54)c
  Spend more time at neighborhood and community parks .70 .012 .490
  Spend at least two hours per week outside .67 .013 .449
  Visit state or national parks .76 .010 .578
  Schedule trips to natural areas .81 .009 .656
  Go on a hike .73 .012 .533
  Go on a walk outdoors .68 .013 .462
  Visit water recreation areas (i.e. lakes, oceans) .71 .012 .504
  Spend more time in nature .79 .010 .624
  1. aEntries are standardized values; all statistically significant (p < .01)
  2. bError variance entries are standardized
  3. cα = Cronbach’s alpha of reliability; ρ = composite construct reliability; AVE = amount of variance extracted. The average variance estimates (AVEs) ranged between 0.591 and 0.821
  4. dValues exceeded the 3.26 cutoff