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Table 2 Results of analysis of variance–covariance (ANOVA-ANCOVA) to investigate the effect of EMDR on dysmenorrhea-related anxiety based on State and Trait subscales

From: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in reducing anxiety among female university students with primary dysmenorrhea

Outcome Model* Time point Intervention (n = 39) Comparison (n = 39) Mean difference Cohen’s d Partial eta square p value
Mean SD Mean SD Point 95% CI Point 95% CI
State anxiety Crude Pre- intervention 46 12.34 43.56 13.24 2.44 − 3.34; 8.21 − 0.19 − 0.64; − 0.25   
   Post-intervention 45.49 10.34 44.87 11.78 0.62 − 4.39; 5.62 0.06 − 0.39; 0.5 0.001 0.81
  Adjusted Post-intervention* 44.84 8.88 45.51 8.8 − 0.67 − 4.68; 3.33 − 0.08 − 0.52; 0.37 0.001 < 0 .001
   Post-intervention** 44.66 8.93 45.69 8.93 − 1.03 − 5.09; 3.03 − 0.12 − 0.56; 0.33 0.003 0.29
   Post-intervention*** 44.64 8.97 45.71 8.97 − 1.07 − 5.18; 3.04 − 0.12 − 0.33; − 0.56 0.004 0.72
Trait anxiety Crude Pre-intervention 44.61 11.07 43.87 11.78 0.74 − 4.41; 5.9 − 0.07 − 0.51; − 0.38   
   Post-intervention 43.9 10.68 44 10.68 − 0.10 − 4.92; 4.72 − 0.01 − 0.45; 0.43 < 0.001 0.97
  Adjusted Post-intervention* 43.65 7.71 44.24 7.71 − 0.59 − 4.07; 2.89 − 0.08 − 0.52; 0.36 .002 < 0.001
   Post-intervention** 43.50 7.78 44.39 7.78 − 0.88 − 4.42; 2.65 − 0.11 − 0.56; 0.33 .003 0.35
   Post-intervention*** 43.56 7.87 44.34 7.87 − 0.77 − 4.37; 2.83 − 0.10 − 0.54; 0.35 0.003 0.70
  1. The crude model was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, adjusted models were analyzed using ANOVA-ANCOVA
  2. *Adjusted for baseline anxiety score
  3. **Adjusted for baseline anxiety score, pain intensity
  4. ***Adjusted for baseline anxiety score, pain intensity and age