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Table 4 Predictors of mediating variables of hopelessness, male study participants (n = 699)

From: Hopelessness and HIV infection: an exploratory study with a gender-specific perspective

  Age aOR (95% CI) Being single aOR (95% CI) Financial dissatisfaction aOR (95% CI) Physical health dissatisfaction aOR (95% CI) Low HIV-related emotional support aOR (95% CI)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Country of birth
 Sweden 1   1   
 Outside Sweden  − 4.76*** (− 6.50, − 3.02)   2.41*** (1.66, 3.61)   
Years of school
  ≤ 12 years   0.75 (0.55, 1.03) 1.43 (0.98, 2.07)   
  ≥ 13 years   1 1   
Employment
 Working 1 1 1 1  
 Non-working 5.00*** (2.67, 7.34) 1.77** (1.22, 2.71) 7.21*** (4.54, 11.45) 2.48*** (1.64, 3.76)  
Self-reported HIV clinical factors
Time since HIV diagnosis
  ≤ 10 years 1   1   
  ≥ 10 years 7.58*** (5.96, 9.21)   0.63* (0.43, 0.93)   
 Experiencing bothersome physical ART side-effects
 Yes     1.41 (0.94, 2.12) 1.74 (0.98, 2.66)
 No     1 1
Psychosocial factors
Internalized stigmatization
 Low      1
 High      0.60* (0.42, 0.87)
Anticipated stigmatization
 Low    1 1  
 High    0.70 (0.47, 1.04) 0.82 (0.58, 1.15)  
Personalized stigmatization
 Low    1   
 High    1.42 (0.92, 2.18)   
Satisfaction with openness about HIV      0.72* (0.55, 0.94)
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ART antiretroviral therapy
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001