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Table 2 Binary and multiple logistic regressions predicting hopelessness among male (n = 699) and female (n = 268) study participants

From: Hopelessness and HIV infection: an exploratory study with a gender-specific perspective

Variable Binary logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
Male participants OR (95% CI) Female participants OR (95% CI) Male participants aOR (95% CI) Female participants aOR (95% CI)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age 1.02** (1.00, 1.03) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 1.02** (1.01, 1.04)  
Country of birth
 Sweden 1 1   
 Outside Sweden 1.34 (0.89, 2.02) 1.38 (0.76, 2.54)   
Relationship status
 In an intimate relationship 1 1 1  
 Single 1.48* (1.04, 2.10) 1.69 (0.88, 3.24) 1.55* (1.09, 2.20)  
Sexual orientation
 Heterosexual 1 1   
 Non-heterosexual 1.11 (0.72, 1.69) 1.90 (0.39, 9.24)   
Years of school
  ≤ 12 years 1.14 (0.79, 1.63) 1.44 (0.82, 2.53)   
  ≥ 13 years 1 1   
Employment
 Working 1 1   
 Non-working 1.52 (0.90, 2.57) 1.33 (0.75, 2.37)   
Financial satisfaction
 Satisfied 1 1 1 1
 Dissatisfied 3.33*** (2.15, 5.16) 2.25** (1.25, 4.07) 3.87*** (2.59, 5.80) 2.29** (1.26, 4.14)
Self-reported HIV clinical factors
Time since HIV diagnosis
  ≤ 10 years 1 1   
  > 10 years 0.97 (0.66, 1.41) 1.24 (0.64, 2.39)   
Experiencing bothersome physical ART side-effects
 Yes 1.43 (0.96, 2.13) 1.72 (0.86, 3.44)   
 No 1 1   
Impact of ART on daily living
 High 1.03 (0.71, 1.51) 0.81 (0.44, 1.50)   
 Low 1 1   
Physical health satisfaction
 Satisfied 1 1 1 1
 Dissatisfied 2.56*** (1.69, 3.88) 3.32*** (1.76, 6.27) 2.70*** (1.80, 4.06) 3.56*** (1.87, 6.81)
Psychosocial factors
HIV-related trauma symptoms
 Subclinical 1 1   
 Symptoms present 1.31 (0.89, 1.91) 0.87 (0.46, 1.62)   
Internalized stigmatization
 Low 1 1   
 High 0.90 (0.63, 1.31) 0.71 (0.43, 1.18)   
Anticipated stigmatization
 Low 1 1   
 High 1.30 (0.88, 1.92) 1.05 (0.55, 2.03)   
Personalized stigmatization
 Low 1 1   
 High   0.89 (0.42, 1.87)   
Impact of HIV on one’s life
 No impact 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) 1.05 (0.71, 1.56)   
 Negative impact 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.99 (0.69, 1.40)   
 Positive impact 0.91 (0.73, 1.15) 0.98 (0.69, 1.40)   
HIV-related emotional social support
 High 1 1 1 1
 Low 2.43*** (1.58, 3.74) 2.59** (1.33, 5.04) 2.49*** (1.70, 3.66) 2.56** (1.30, 5.04)
Satisfaction with openness about HIV 0.99 (0.74, 1.33) 1.44 (0.91, 2.29   
Change in sense of self-esteem 0.98 (0.77, 1.24) 0.74 (0.48, 1.13)   
Change in sense of meaningfulness of life 1.00 (0.76, 1.30) 1.41 (0.88, 2.24)   
  1. OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ART antiretroviral therapy
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001