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Table 2 The characteristic of HUNT2, HUNT3 and HUNT4 study participants according to DM stratified by sex

From: Prevalence trends of depression and anxiety symptoms in adults with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes 1995–2019: The HUNT studies, Norway

Total n (%) HUNT2 (1995–98)
n = 61,229
HUNT3 (2006–08)
n = 40,504
HUNT4 (2017–19)
n = 41,371
DM
n = 1707 (2.8)
No-DM
n = 59,522 (97.2)
DM
n = 1872 (4.6)
No-DM
n = 38,632 (95.4)
DM
n = 2569 (6.2)
No-DM
n = 38,802 (93.8)
Women
n = 847 (49.6)
Men
n = 860 (50.4)
Women
n = 31,435 (52.8)
Men
n = 28,087 (47.2)
Women
n = 904 (48.3)
Men
n = 968 (51.7)
Women
n = 21,776 (56.4)
Men
n = 16,856 (43.6)
Women
n = 1217 (47.4)
Men
n = 1352 (52.6)
Women
n = 22,436 (57.8)
Men
n = 16,366 (42.2)
Variables             
 Depressiona             
  No 692 (81.7) 710 (82.6) 28,182 (89.7) 25,004 (89.0) 791 (87.5) 836 (86.4) 19,881 (91.3) 15,091 (89.5) 1052 (86.4) 1171 (86.6) 20,469 (91.2) 14,713 (89.9)
  Yes 155 (18.3) 150 (17.4) 3253 (10.3) 3083 (11.0) 113 (12.5) 132 (13.6) 1895 (8.7) 1765 (10.5) 165 (13.6) 181 (13.4) 1967 (8.8) 1653 (10.1)
 Anxietyb             
  No 631 (74.5) 702 (81.6) 23,791 (75.7) 23,192 (82.6) 748 (82.7) 866 (89.5) 17,988 (82.6) 15,115 (89.7) 936 (76.9) 1181 (87.4) 17,702 (78.9) 14,184 (86.7)
  Yes 216 (25.5) 158 (18.4) 7644 (24.3) 4895 (17.4) 156 (17.3) 102 (10.5) 3788 (17.4) 1741 (10.3) 281 (23.1) 171 (12.6) 4734 (21.1) 2182 (13.3)
 Age (years)             
  Mean (Sd)c 66.1 (14.9) 63.6 (14.5) 48.4 (16.8) 48.6 (16.3) 64.7 (13.2) 64..6 (11.3) 53.1 (15.9) 54.8 (15.0) 65.0 (14.6) 67.5 (11.4) 52.3 (17.1) 56.4 (16.5)
  <55 194 (22.9) 232 (27.0) 20,952 (66.6) 18,564 (66.1) 189 (20.9) 174 (18.0) 11,633 (53.4) 8144 (48.3) 270 (22.2) 183 (13.5) 11,075 (49.4) 7105 (43.4)
  55–64 123 (14.5) 157 (18.3) 4291 (13.7) 4048 (14.4) 244 (27.0) 309 (31.9) 4916 (22.6) 4312 (25.6) 242 (19.9) 292 (21.6) 4634 (20.7) 3566 (21.8)
  ≥65 530 (62.6) 471 (54.7) 6192 (19.7) 5475 (19.5) 471 (52.1) 485 (50.1) 5227 (24.0) 4400 (26.1) 705 (57.9) 877 (64.9) 6727 (29.9) 5695 (34.8)
 Cohabitation             
  Living with someone 427 (50.4) 565 (65.7) 21,950 (69.8) 18,536 (66.0) 618 (68.4) 798 (82.4) 17,306 (79.5) 14,031 (83.2) 804 (66.1) 1070 (79.1) 17,204 (76.7) 13,351 (81.6)
  Living alone 420 (49.6) 295 (34.3) 9485 (30.2) 9551 (34.0) 286 (31.6) 170 (17.6) 4470 (20.5) 2825 (16.8) 413 (33.9) 282 (20.9) 5232 (23.3) 3015 (18.4)
 Current smoking             
  No 695 (82.1) 647 (75.3) 21,408 (68.1) 19,739 (70.3) 696 (77.0) 768 (79.3) 15,974 (73.4) 12,827 (76.1) 1070 (87.9) 1241 (91.8) 20,024 (89.3) 14,997 (91.6)
  Yes 118 (13.9) 192 (22.3) 9419 (30.0) 8003 (28.5) 167 (18.5) 180 (18.6) 5224 (24.0) 3620 (21.5) 133 (10.9) 105 (7.8) 2321 (10.3) 1318 (8.1)
  Missing 34 (4.0) 21 (2.4) 608 (1.9) 345 (1.2) 41 (4.5) 20 (2.1) 578 (2.6) 409 (2.4) 14 (1.2) 6 (0.4) 91 (0.4) 51 (0.3)
 Physical activity             
  Inactived 102 (12.0) 66 (7.7) 1660 (5.3) 1639 (5.8) 76 (8.4) 85 (8.8) 788 (3.6) 976 (5.8) 87 (7.2) 99 (7.3) 701 (3.1) 683 (4.2)
  Activee 504 (59.5) 656 (76.3) 26,374 (83.9) 24,291 (86.5) 801 (88.6) 868 (89.7) 20,620 (94.7) 15,643 (92.8) 1099 (90.3) 1226 (90.7) 21,387 (95.3) 15,456 (94.4)
  Missing 241 (28.5) 138 (16.0) 3401 (10.8) 2157 (7.7) 27 (3.0) 15 (1.5) 368 (1.7) 237 (1.4) 31 (2.5) 27 (2.0) 348 (1.6) 227 (1.4)
 Alcohol consumption             
  No or lowf 746 (88.1) 666 (77.5) 26,572 (84.5) 21,435 (76.3) 719 (79.5) 627 (64.8) 14,458 (66.4) 8988 (53.3) 1089 (89.5) 1091 (80.7) 18,515 (82.5) 11,809 (72.2)
  Moderate to frequentg 26 (3.1) 106 (12.3) 2293 (7.3) 4816 (17.2) 146 (16.2) 323 (33.4) 6680 (30.7) 7570 (44.9) 97 (8.0) 241 (17.8) 3649 (16.3) 4385 (26.8)
  Missing 75 (8.8) 88 (10.2) 2570 (8.2) 1836 (6.5) 39 (4.3) 18 (1.8) 638 (2.9) 298 (1.8) 31 (2.5) 20 (1.5) 272 (1.2) 172 (1.0)
 BMIh (kg/m2)             
  Underweight to normal 154 (18.2) 198 (23.0) 14,251 (45.3) 9945 (35.4) 140 (15.5) 139 (14.4) 8508 (39.1) 4222 (25.1) 214 (17.6) 200 (14.8) 8907 (39.7) 4454 (27.2)
  Overweight to obese 651 (76.9) 646 (75.1) 16,841 (53.6) 17,952 (63.9) 751 (83.1) 819 (84.6) 13,200 (60.6) 12,588 (74.7) 989 (81.3) 1131 (83.7) 13,397 (59.7) 11,817 (72.2)
  Missing 42 (4.9) 16 (1.9) 343 (1.1) 190 (0.7) 13 (1.4) 10 (1.0) 68 (0.3) 46 (0.2) 14 (1.1) 21 (1.5) 132 (0.6) 95 (0.6)
  1. DM, Diabetes mellitus; HUNT, The Trøndelag Health Study
  2. aDepression symptoms defined by HADS-D ≥ 8, HADS-D Hospital Anxiety and Depression-subscale Depression,
  3. bAnxiety symptoms defined by HADS-A ≥ , HADS-A Hospital Anxiety and Depression-subscale Anxiety
  4. cSd = standard deviation
  5. dInactive = never or no light/hard physical activity per week
  6. eActive = less than once or more light/hard physical activity per week
  7. Light physical activity (no sweating or heavy breathing) vs hard physical activity
  8. fNo or low drinking = Never or ≤ 1 time/week
  9. gModerate (2–3 times/week) to frequent (≥ 4 times/week)
  10. hBMI = Body mass index; underweight to normal: BMI < 25 kg/m2; overweight to obese: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2