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Table 1 The list of studies, corresponding research design, sample size, intervention, dependent variables, duration, population, and major findings

From: Mindfulness-based positive psychology interventions: a systematic review

Sl. No Study Research design Sample size Intervention Dependent variables Duration Population Major findings
1 Carson et al. [48] Randomized wait-list controlled design 44 (E = 22, C = 22) Mindfulness-Based Relationship Enhancement (i) Relationsi)hip Satisfaction, (ii)Autonomy, (iii)Relatedness, (iv)Closeness, (v)Acceptance of partner, (vi)Relationship distress, (vii)Optimism, (viii)Spirituality, (ix)Individual relaxation, (x) Psychological distress Eight weekly sessions and a full-day retreat Happy and non-distressed couples MBI has beneficially affected all variables assessed, and maintained the effect at a three-month follow-up
2 de Vibe et al. [38] Longitudinal for six years 288(E = 144, C = 144) Abridged Mindfulness-Based Stress Programme (MBSR) (i) Dispositional mindfulness, (ii)Coping, (iii) Well-Being Seven weeks (15 h) and booster sessions twice yearly Medical and psychology students At 6-year follow-up, participants reported better well-being, mindfulness, and problem-focused coping and decreased avoidance focused-coping, irrespective of low intervention adherence
3 Amutio et al. [37] Longitudinal for one year with randomized controlled design (quasi-experiment) 42 (E = 21, C = 21) MBSR based on the psycho-educational model of Krasner et al. (2009) (i) Mindfulness, (ii)Relaxation states, (iii)Heart rate Eight weeks Physicians MBSR has improved mindfulness and relaxation states (including positive emotional states, such as at ease/peace, renewal, energy, optimism, happiness, acceptance, and transcendence) and decreased heart rate. At one-year follow-up effect size improved again
4 Bhayee et al. [46] Randomized active controlled trial 26 (E = 13, C = 13) Neurofeedback assisted, technology-supported mindfulness training (NtsMT) (i) Attention, (ii) Well-being Six weeks, 10 min of daily practice Healthy, community-dwelling adults NtsMT moderately improved attention and well-being
5 Flook et al.  [32] Randomized controlled design 68 (E = 30, C = 38) Mindfulness-based Kindness curriculum (i) Social competence, (ii)Sharing, (iii) Delay of gratification, (iv) Cognitive flexibility, (v) Inhibitory control, (vi) Academic performance 12 weeks; 20–30 min sessions twice a week Pre-school children Improved social competence, academic performance, delay of gratification, and cognitive flexibility
6 Rasanen et al. [39] Randomized waitlist controlled design 68 (E = 33, C = 35) Guided seven-week online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (iACT) (i) Well-being, (ii) Life satisfaction, (iii) Self-esteem, (iv) Mindfulness, (v) Stress, (vi) Depression, (vii) Anxiety, (viii)Psychological flexibility, (ix) Sense of coherence Seven weeks: Two face-to-face meetings and five-weeks iACT Distressed university students Well-being, life satisfaction, and mindfulness increased; stress and depression decreased. Benefits were maintained at follow-up after 12 months
7 Fredrickson et al. [53] Field experiment 139 (E = 67, C = 72) Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM) (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Trait hope, (iii) Savoring beliefs, (iv) Optimism, (v) Ego resilience, (vi) Psychological well-being, (vii) Dyadic adjustment, (viii) Positive relations,, (ix) Illness symptoms, (x) Sleep quality, (xi)Satisfaction with life, (xii) Depression, (xiii)Differential emotions, (xiv) Time varying emotion experiences Seven weeks: six 60 min group sessions, asked to practice at home, at least 5 days per week, with the guided recordings Working adults LKM enhanced experience of positive emotions which benefittedpersonal resources including mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, and illness symptoms. Changes in personal resources predicted improved life satisfaction and reduced depression
8 Yela et al. [52] Quasi-experimental pre-post design 61 (high adherence = 30, low adherence = 31) Mindful Self-Compassion (i) Self Compassion, (ii) Mindfulness, (iii) Well-being, (iv) Anxiety, (iv) Depression Eight weeks: 2.5 h session once a week Masters students in clinical and health psychology High adherence group reported better self-compassion, mindfulness, and well-being
9 Pogrebtsova et al. [56] daily diary randomized controlled trial 106 (E = 36, C = 36, standard of care C = 34 Combined mindful re-appraisal intervention (i) Positive and negative experiences, (ii) Positive re-appraisal, (iii) Decentering, (iv) Curiosity, (v) Optimism Five-day Undergraduate university students Experimental group reported reduced negative affect and marginally higher positive affect
10 Smith et al. [59] Longitudinal quasi experimental design for 2.5-years (two year course and six months follow up) 31 (E = 17, C = 14) Dharma in Daily Life (DIDL) 30 min per day, six days per week (I) Quality of life, (ii) Subjective well-being, (iii) Wellbeing, (iv) Valuing, (v) Psychological flexibility, (vi) Mindfulness, (vii) Cognitive fusion 30 min per day, six days a week, for the two year course period and a six month follow-up period Adults from meditation groups DIDL improved subjective well-being and mindfulness. Despite the intervention condition, frequency of meditation predicted psychological flexibility, mindfulness, well-being, and valuing
11 Sorensen et al. [54] Active controlled trial (3 × 3 mixed design) 78 (Convergence = 28, LKM = 26, Music = 24) Convergence' or LKM or Music for three 2-h group sessions (1) Mindfulness (2) Self Compassion (3)Fears of Compassion (4) Stress and Anxiety (5) Mental well-being Three weeks, once weekly Adults from the general population All three conditions produced equal benefits on all outcome measures with small effect sizes. No greater impact of Convergence found. Amount of home practice positively correlated with mindfulness and self-compassion at four-week follow-up
12 Devcich et al. [40] Active controlled pilot study 91 (Mindfulness = 45, Emotional literacy = 46) Pause, breathe, smile or emotional literacy program (1) Well-being -hedonia and eudaimonia (2)Mindfulness One hour weekly sessions for eight weeks School children Both conditions improved well-being and only experimental group reported higher mindfulness, post-intervention
13 Ivtzan et al.  [58] Randomized wait-list controlled trial 168 (E = 53, C = 115) Online Positive Mindfulness Program (PMP) (1) Eudaimonic and hedonic well-being, (2)Stress, (3)Depression, (4)Mindfulness, (5)Gratitude, (6) Self-compassion, (7) PWB Autonomy, (8) Self efficacy, (9) Meaning in life, (10) Compassion for others, (11)Appreciation for the present moment Eight-week—12 min audio for daily meditation and 8–10 min video once a week Citizens from 20 counties, recruited through online forums and social networks PMP beneficially affected all dependent variables and sustained the effect for 10 out of 11 variables at a one-month follow-up
14 Huppert & Johnson [41] non-randomized controlled trial 134 (E = 78, C = 56) Four mindfulness classes (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Resilience, (iii )Well-being, (iv) Big 5 personality four 40-min sessions, once a week 14 and 15 year old boys No between-group difference found. Experimental group reported mindfulness and well-being positively correlated with duration of practice
15 Coatsworth et al. [49] Randomized controlled comparative effectiveness study design 432 families (E = 154, AC = 160, C = 118) Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program( (i) Interpersonal mindfulness in parenting, (ii) Parent-Youth Relationship, (iii) Youth behavior management, (iv) Parent well-being Once per week for seven weeks Families of 6th and 7th grade students of four consecutive years MSFP and a control condition SFP 10–14 showed similar effects on dependent variables. MSFP improved and sustained the effect of SFP on some areas, especially the experience of fathers
16 Vich et al. [57] Randomized controlled trial 128 (E = 75, C = 42) Relational Mindfulness Training (RMT) (i) self compassion, (ii) compassion, (iii) stress, (iv) mindfulness, (v) happiness Eight week—two hour sessions per week and one six hour session in a weekend Management students RMT showed long-term impact on self-compassion, stress, and mindfulness; and short-term impact on compassion and subjective happiness
17 Champion et al. [47] Pilot randomized controlled trial 62 (E = 29, C = 33) Headspace app introductory program—Foundation 1 to 3; 30 sessions (i) Life satisfaction, (ii) Stress, (iii) Resilience, (iv) Social impairment, (v) Depression, (vi) Hypochondriasis, (vii) Anxiety, (viii) Enjoyment & experience 30 sessions with minimum 10 min per session. Option to choose up to 15 to 20 min during level 2 and 3, respectively Management and economics students Improved life satisfaction, stress, and resilience. Highest increased on day-10 that dropped moderately by day-30
18 Nyklicek & Kuijpers [28] Randomized wait-list controlled trial 57 MBSR (i) Stress, (ii) Vital exhaustion, (iii) Positive affect, (iv) Negative affect, (v) Quality of life, (vi) Mindfulness, (vii) Mindfulness in daily life Eight weeks—eight weekly sessions of 150 min; and from sixth week an additional six hour session; minimum 40 min of daily practice Distressed adults Reduced stress and vital exhaustion, and improved positive affect, quality of life, and mindfulness. Mindfulness, at least partially mediate the impact of MBSR on variables, especially stress, and quality of life
19 Rodriguez-Carvajal etl al. [55] Non-randomized controlled trial 73 (E = 36, C = 37) Mindfulness Integrative Model (MIM) (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Self-compassion, (iii) Positive states of mind Three weeks—19 sessions Adults from non-clinical general population Significant difference in experimental group with large effect size
20 Kappen et al. [50] Randomized controlled trial 113 (E = 56, C-57) Online mindfulness program (i)Relationship satisfaction, (ii) Partner acceptance, (iii) Trait mindfulness 12 day Adults in a romantic relationship for at least one year recruited through social networking sites Relationship satisfaction and partner acceptance increased for both groups. Mindfulness significantly improved for low baseline-scorers of experimental condition alone
21 Neff & Germer [51] Pilot 21 MSC (i)Self compassion, (ii) Mindfulness, (iii) Connectedness, (iv) Happiness, (v) Life satisfaction, (vi) Depression, (vii) Anxiety, (viii) Stress Eight weekly sessions and one 2-h session per week General population recruited through online media Improved self-compassion, mindfulness, and well-being outcomes
22 Neff & Germer [51] Randomized controlled trial 52 (E = 25, C = 27) MSC (i) Self compassion, (ii) Mindfulness, (iii)Connectedness, (iv)Happiness, (v) Life satisfaction, (vi) Depression, (vii) Anxiety, (viii) Stress, (ix) Compassion for others, (x) Avoidance Eight weekly sessions and one 2-h session per week General population recruited through online media Experimental group reported higher self-compassion, mindfulness, and well-being outcomes, that were maintained at 6-th and one-year follow-ups
  1. E = Experimental group
  2. C = Control group
  3. AC = Active control group